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Our cognitive, emotional, and physical responses to a perceived threat are uncomfortable, so why wouldn't we give in to a natural urge to shut off the alarm? Unfortunately, when the avoidance strategies we use to get some distance from worrying, racing thoughts, rapid breathing, tension, and subjective discomfort don't have the impact we'd like, we run the risk of avoiding valued but anxiety-provoking situations entirely until we believe we have a handle on whatever's making us feel so bad. The idea that we must control anxiety before moving on to more meaningful activities runs counter to the perspective that will help you respond most effectively to anxiety in your life. Preventing discomfort might seem important when we anticipate challenges, but prioritizing valued behavior over anxiety reduction is likely to lead to more satisfying long-term outcomes. Getting on with life, even if that means tolerating some anxiety along the way, creates an opportunity to learn that "I don't need to avoid anxiety to be able to do what's important to me." Although this is one of the most important anxiety-management concepts we can learn, it's difficult to buy into this idea without firsthand experience. Consequently, many people are unwilling to work on functioning while anxious, or they're confused about how to take those steps, so they decide instead to stick with their typical patterns of emotion-focused or avoidant coping, despite the drawbacks. To really appreciate why antigen presentation is one of Mother Nature's greatest "inventions," we need to think a little about the logic behind this amazing activity. For starters, we need to ask the question: Why bother with MHC presentation at all? <br /><br /> Why not just let a T cell's receptors recognize un-presented antigen the way a B cell's receptors do? This is really a two-part question, since we are talking about two rather different displays: class I and class II. So let's examine these one at a time. One reason for class I presentation is to focus the attention of killer T cells on infected cells, not on viruses and other pathogens that are outside our cells in the blood and tissues. So long as pathogens remain outside of our cells, antibodies can tag them for destruction by professional phagocytes, and can bind to them and prevent them from initiating an infection. Since each plasma B cell can pump out about 2,000 antibody molecules per second, these antibodies are "cheap" weapons that deal quite effectively with extracellular invaders. <br /><br /> However, once microbes enter a cell, antibodies can't get at them. When this happens, killer T cells - the high-tech, "expensive" weapons, specifically designed to destroy infected cells - are needed. And the requirement that killer T cells recognize antigens presented by class I MHC molecules on infected cells insures that CTLs won't waste their time going after invaders that are outside of cells - invaders which antibodies usually can deal with quite effectively. In addition, it would be extremely dangerous to have un-presented antigen signal T cell killing. Imagine how terrible it would be if uninfected cells happened to have debris from dead viruses stuck to their surface, and killer T cells recognized this un-presented antigen and killed those "innocent bystander" cells. That certainly wouldn't do. <br /><br /> Another reason class I display is so important is that most proteins made in a pathogen-infected cell remain inside the cell, and never make their way to the cell surface. So without class I display, many pathogen-infected cells would go undetected by killer T cells. In fact, part of the magic of the class I MHC display is that, in principle, every protein of an invading pathogen can be chopped up and displayed by class I MHC molecules for killer T cells to view. With the growth of my blog came the influx of hate mail and online trolls. Unfortunately, if you allow people to send anonymous questions out of respect for individual privacy, you will often have people who abuse that privilege, such as individuals who sit behind a screen and send hateful messages in an attempt to derail you and your mission to spread hope for healthy weight-loss methods. Again, you can choose to react--or you can choose to piss people off with kindness. <br /><br /> I have never responded to a hateful or hurtful message. I delete it and move on. https://freeukbusinessdirectory