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Composer: Umberto Giordano
Librettist: Luigi Illica
Premiere: 28 March 1896, Milan (La Scala)
Language: Italian
Translation(s): English subtitles
Andrea Chenier Synopsis:
For Italian, French, Spanish and German Subtitles:

Andrea Chénier is a verismo opera in four acts by Umberto Giordano, set to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica, and first performed on 28 March 1896 at La Scala, Milan. The story is based loosely on the life of the French poet André Chénier (1762–1794), who was executed during the French Revolution. The character Carlo Gérard is partly based on Jean-Lambert Tallien, a leading figure in the Revolution. It remains popular with audiences, though less frequently performed than in the first half of the 20th century.

The NHK (Nippon Hoso Kyokai) Symphony Orchestra
NHK Italian Opera Chorus &
Fujiwara Opera Chorus & Tokyo Choirs
Conductor: Franco Capuana
Live Performance, October 1, 1961
Tokyo Bunka Kaikan

Cast & Characters:
Andrea Chénier - Mario Del Monaco
Maddalena di Coigny - Renata Tebaldi
Carlo Gérard - Aldo Protti
Bersi - Anna di Stasio
The Countess of Coigny / Madelon - Amalia Pini
Majordomo / Roucher / Dumas - Silvano Pagliuca
L'incredibile - Antonio Pirino
Fleville / Mathieu - Arturo La Porta
Fouquier-Tinville / Schmidt - Giorgio Onesti

The work was first performed at the Teatro alla Scala, Milan, on 28 March 1896 with Evelina Carrera, Giuseppe Borgatti (who replaced Alfonso Garulli at the eleventh hour) and Mario Sammarco in the leading parts of soprano, tenor and baritone respectively. Rodolfo Ferrari conducted. Giuseppe Borgatti's triumph in the title role at the first performance immediately propelled him to the front rank of Italian opera singers. He went on to become Italy's greatest Wagnerian tenor, rather than a verismo-opera specialist.

Other notable first performances include those in New York City at the Academy of Music on 13 November 1896; in Hamburg on 3 February 1897 under the baton of Gustav Mahler; and in London's Camden Theatre on 16 April 1903 (sung in English).

Apart from Borgatti, famous Chéniers in the period between the opera's premiere and the outbreak of World War II included Francesco Tamagno (who studied the work with Giordano), Bernardo de Muro, Giovanni Zenatello, Giovanni Martinelli, Aureliano Pertile, Francesco Merli, Beniamino Gigli, Giacomo Lauri-Volpi and Antonio Cortis. Enrico Caruso also gave a few performances as Chénier in London in 1907. All of these tenors with the exception of Borgatti have left 78-rpm recordings of one or more of the part's showpiece solos.

Post-war, Franco Corelli, Richard Tucker and Mario Del Monaco were the most famous interpreters of the title role during the 1950s and 1960s, while Plácido Domingo became its foremost interpreter among the next generation of tenors, although Domingo's contemporary Luciano Pavarotti also sang and recorded the work.

A 1975 Film-ballet of the Mosfilm based on the famous production by Yuri Grigorovich to the music of Aram Khachaturian.

The work follows the exploits of Spartacus, the leader of the slave uprising against the Romans known as the Third Servile War, although the ballet's storyline takes considerable liberties with the historical record.

Khachaturian composed Spartacus in 1954, and was awarded a Lenin Prize for the composition that same year. It was first staged in Leningrad on 27 December 1956, as choreographed by Leonid Yakobson, for the Kirov Theatre of Opera and Ballet (Mariinsky Theatre), where it stayed in repertory for many years, but only with qualified success since Yakobson abandoned conventional pointe in his choreography. Yakobson restaged his version for the Bolshoi in 1962 and it was part of the Bolshoi's 1962 tour to New York. The ballet received its first staging at the Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow in 1958, choreographed by Igor Moiseyev; however it was the 1968 production, choreographed by Yury Grigorovich, which achieved the greatest acclaim for the ballet.

The revolutionary choreography of Yuri Grigorovich, as well as the performers of the main male roles, Vladimir Vasiliev and Maris Liepa, made this ballet immortal. Spartacus remains one of Khachaturian's best known works and is prominent within the repertoires of the Bolshoi Theatre and other ballet companies in Russia and the former Soviet Union.

Cast & Characters:
Vladimir Vasiliev as Spartacus, captive king of Thrace
Maris Liepa as Crassus, Roman consul
Natalia Bessmertnova as Phrygia, wife of Spartacus
Nina Timofeev as Aegina, concubine to Crassus

Choreography: Yuri Grigorovich
Libretto: Yuri Grigorovich, Vadim Derbenёv
Film Directors: Yuri Grigorovich, Vadim Derbenёv

Bolshoi Theatre Corps de Ballet
Bolshoi Theatre Orchestra
Conductor: Algis Žiūraitis

ACT I: The Roman consul Crassus returns to Rome from his latest conquests in a triumphal procession. Among his captives are the Thracian king Spartacus and his wife Phrygia. Spartacus laments his captivity and bids a bitter farewell to Phrygia, who is taken off to join Crassus's harem of concubines. To entertain Crassus and his entourage, Spartacus is sent into the gladiatorial ring and is forced to kill a close friend. Horrified at his deed, Spartacus incites his fellow captives to rebellion.

ACT II: The escaped captives celebrate their freedom. Meanwhile, Crassus entertains the Roman patricians with lavish entertainment. Spartacus and the other escaped captives disrupt the orgy and rescue the slave women, including Phrygia. Aegina insists that Crassus pursue the slave army immediately. The lovers celebrate their escape to the "Adagio of Spartacus and Phrygia".

ACT III: Aegina discovers Spartacus's camp and observes the lovers emerging from their tent the next morning. Aegina sends word to Crassus, who sends his army in pursuit. Internecine struggles break out among Spartacus's forces. Finally, Crassus's forces discover Spartacus and impale him upon their spears. Spartacus's closest followers recover his body and carry it off while Phrygia mourns her loss.

Synopsis: ACT II
When Ferrando learns that Dorabella has yielded to Guglielmo, he becomes yet more determined to win Fiordiligi's heart. Eventually, she too succumbs and a double wedding is planned - with Despina, again in disguise, as the notary. Just as the army is heard returning, the Albanian newlyweds disappear and Ferrando and Guglielmo appear in their place. Producing the marriage contract, they remonstrate with the sisters, who soon confess their deceit. After paying Alfonso his wager, Ferrando and Guglielmo forgive Fiordiligi and Dorabella.

Title: Così fan tutte, ossia La scuola degli amanti (Women are like that, or The School for Lovers)
Composer: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Librettist: Lorenzo da Ponte
Premiere: 26 January 1790, Vienna (Burgtheater)
Language: Italian
Translation(s): English subtitles
Act II:

Costume & Settings: Mauro Pagano
Director: Michael Hampe
Recorded Live at Teatro alla Scala, 11 April 1989

Orchestra & Chorus of Teatro alla Scala
Chorus Master: Giulio Bertola
Conductor: Riccardo Muti

Cast & Characters:
Daniela Dessì: Fiordiligi
Dorabella: Delores Ziegler
Guglielmo: Alessandro Corbelli
Ferrando: Jozef Kundlak
Despina: Adelina Scarabelli
Don Alfonso: Claudio Desderi

Mozart and Da Ponte use the theme of "fiancée swapping", which dates back to the 13th century; notable earlier versions are found in Boccaccio's Decameron and Shakespeare's play Cymbeline. Elements from Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice and The Taming of the Shrew are also present. Furthermore, it incorporates elements of the myth of Procris as found in Ovid's Metamorphoses, vii.

Synopsis: ACT I
Place: Naples
Time: the 18th century

Ferrando and Guglielmo are convinced of the fidelity of Fiordiligi and Dorabella, the two sisters to whom they are betrothed. Don Alfonso, on the other hand, claims all women are fickle and wagers that he can prove it. The young men agree to take Alfonso's test, and he tells the sisters that their husbands-to-be have been enlisted into the army. Once the men have departed, the sisters' maid Despina is persuaded by Alfonso to introduce two young Albanian friends (Ferrando and Guglielmo in disguise) to Fiordiligi and Dorabella. Each "stranger" then begins to court the other's fiancée, and they begin to make progress after pretending to take poison. Despina disguises herself as a doctor and successfully cures the Albanians.

Hedda is a 1975 film adaptation of Henrik Ibsen's 1891 play Hedda Gabler, written for the screen and directed by Trevor Nunn, and starring Glenda Jackson, Timothy West, Peter Eyre, Patrick Stewart (in his screen debut), and Jennie Linden.

Hedda Gabler dramatizes the experiences of the title character, Hedda, the daughter of a general, who is trapped in a marriage and a house that she does not want. Overall, the title character for Hedda Gabler is considered one of the great dramatic roles in theater. Hedda's married name is Hedda Tesman; Gabler is her maiden name. On the subject of the title, Ibsen wrote: "My intention in giving it this name was to indicate that Hedda as a personality is to be regarded rather as her father's daughter than her husband's wife."

This film was the first (and, as of 2023, the only) major theatrical film version of the play in English. Other productions of the play in English with sound have been made for television. Hedda earned Jackson her fourth nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress, as well as a nomination for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama. It was also nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Film. The film was screened at the 1976 Cannes Film Festival, but wasn't entered into the main competition.

Cast & Characters:
Glenda Jackson - Hedda Gabler
Timothy West - Judge Brack
Peter Eyre - George Tesman
Patrick Stewart - Ejlert Løvborg
Jennie Linden - Thea Elvsted
Constance Chapman - Juliane Tesman (Aunt Julie)
Pam St. Clement - Berthe

Nuovo cinema Paradiso (literally "New Paradise Cinema") is a 1988 French-Italian coming-of-age drama film written and directed by Giuseppe Tornatore. It was internationally released as Cinema Paradiso in France, Spain, the UK and the US. Audio in Italian with English subtitles.
Set in a small Sicilian town, the film centers on the friendship between a young boy and an aging projectionist who works at the titular movie theatre. This Italian-French co-production stars Philippe Noiret, Jacques Perrin, Leopoldo Trieste, Marco Leonardi, Agnese Nano and Salvatore Cascio. The film score was composed by Ennio Morricone and his son, Andrea, marking the beginning of a collaboration between Tornatore and Morricone that lasted until Morricone's death on 6 July 2020.

In 1988 Rome, Salvatore Di Vita, a famous film director, returns home late one evening, where his girlfriend sleepily tells him that his mother called to say someone named Alfredo has died. Salvatore shies from committed relationships and has not been to his home village of Giancaldo, Sicily in thirty years. As his girlfriend asks him who Alfredo was, Salvatore is not able to fall asleep and flashes back to his childhood.

Credited with revitalizing Italy's film industry, Cinema Paradiso has been cited as one of the greatest films of all time. The ending is considered among the greatest endings in movie history.

It was a commercial success, and won several awards, including the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film and the Cannes Film Festival's Grand Prix. It was nominated for 11 BAFTA Awards and won five; including Best Actor for Philippe Noiret, Best Supporting Actor for Salvatore Cascio, Best Original Screenplay, and Best Foreign Language Film, a record for a foreign language feature until it was broken by All Quiet on the Western Front in 2023.

Cast & Characters:
Philippe Noiret as Alfredo
Salvatore Cascio as child Salvatore Di Vita
Marco Leonardi as teenage Salvatore
Jacques Perrin as adult Salvatore
Agnese Nano as Elena Mendola
Brigitte Fossey as adult Elena (extended cut only)
Antonella Attili as Maria Di Vita
Pupella Maggio as old Maria
Enzo Cannavale as Spaccafico
Isa Danieli as Anna
Leopoldo Trieste as Father Adelfio
Roberta Lena as Lia
Nino Terzo as Peppino's father
Leo Gullotta as the Usher
Tano Cimarosa as the Blacksmith
Nicola Di Pinto as the Village Idiot

Cinema Paradiso was shot in director Tornatore's hometown Bagheria, Sicily, as well as Cefalù on the Tyrrhenian Sea.

- DOCUMENTARY SEGMENT: Between 1788 and 1790, Mozart and his wife Constanze suffered from precarious finances and the tragedy of the death of young children; only two of the five children born to them during their eight-year marriage lived to adulthood. With Constanze in fragile health from her pregnancies and taking the waters at Baden, Mozart spent 1791 – the final year of his short life – in Vienna, working to make ends meet. Spending on the arts there had declined, but Mozart earned enough to stabilize his family′s financial situation, although it remained precarious. With his own health in decline, visiting Constanze in Baden every weekend, Mozart wrote some solemn works during the year, such as the Requiem Mass in D minor, K. 626, which he never finished; it was performed at his funeral. But he also wrote lighthearted music, such the fairy-tale opera The Magic Flute, and his final piano concerto, Piano Concerto No. 27 in B-flat major, K. 595, an uplifting work that used the same melody as a children's song about a little boy wishing for the coming of spring. Music performed during the documentary includes portions of The Magic Flute by László Polgár (as Papageno), Ibolya Verebics (as Pamina), and the Symphony Orchestra of the Hungarian Radio and Television, Budpaest, conducted by Wilhelm Keitel; of the Quintet in A major for Clarinet and Strings, K. 581, by Otokar Bretšneider (clarinet) and members of the Talich Quartet; and of Piano Concert No. 27 by Aleksandar Madžar.

- CONCERT SEGMENT: Piano Concerto No. 27 in B-flat major, K. 595, performed by Aleksandar Madžar with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by André Previn, recorded in the Grosse Galerie ("Great Gallery") at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, Austria.

- DOCUMENTARY SEGMENT: By 1790, Mozart had visited Munich eight times – it usually was the first large city he passed through on his journeys and thus served as a way station for him, and his piano performances and works always were popular in Munich – but had never secured steady employment there. Munich saw important performances of many of Mozart′s works, including the world première of his 1775 opera La finta giardiniera ("The Pretend Garden-Girl") and of his 1781 opera seria Idomeneo. He played his 1788 Piano Concerto No. 26 in D major "Coronation," K. 537, at the coronation of Leopold II as Holy Roman Emperor in Frankfurt-am-Main in September 1790 and played it for the King of Naples, Ferdinand IV (1751–1825) in Munich on his way home. A noteworthy aspect of the written version of the concerto is that it does not contain all the notes of the solo part, preventing dishonest copyists from distributing the work without proper payment. In many of his piano works, Mozart expected pianists to understand what he wanted them to play from a musical sketch which required them to improvise the necessary harmonies, sometimes by sight. To this day, the "Coronation" concerto is played in this way, sometimes using cadenzas recommended by the composer or other authorities and sometimes with the individual pianist using his or her own interpretation. Music performed during the documentary includes portions of La finta giardiniera by members of the Choir of the Hungarian National Opera, Budapest, and the Symphony Orchestra of the Hungarian Radio and Television, Budpaest, conducted by Wilhelm Keitel, and of Divertimento No. 15, K. 287, by the Chamber Ensemble of the National Theatre, Prague.

- CONCERT SEGMENT: Piano Concerto No. 26 in D major "Coronation," K. 537 with cadenzas by Edwin Fischer, performed by Homero Francesch with the Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie Bremen ("Bremen German Chamber Philharmonic") conducted by Gerd Albrecht, recorded in the Christian Zaiss Saal ("Christian Zeiss Hall") in Wiesbaden, Germany.

Episode 13:

- DOCUMENTARY SEGMENT: Austria's Emperor Leopold II traveled to Frankfurt-am-Main in early October 1790 to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor. Left out of the Viennese court's official delegation, Mozart paid his own way to travel to Frankfurt-am-Main in the hope of making money by performing concerts. However, he was left out of the musical activities related to the coronation entirely, and instead of Mozart receiving a commission for an opera, the opera Axur, re d'Ormus by Antonio Salieri (1750–1825) was performed as part of the coronation festivities. By the time of the coronation ceremony on 9 October 1790, Mozart had done little to compose new music or make professional contacts among the dignitaries attending the festivities. In the end, Mozart finally gave a concert on 15 October 1790, after the newly crowned emperor and most other officials had left the city. The concert, which included performances of Piano Concerto No. 19 in F major, K. 459, and Piano Concerto No. 26 in D major "Coronation," K. 537, was not a commercial success. Music performed during the documentary includes portions of Piano Concerto No. 19 by Radu Lupu with the Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie Bremen ("Bremen German Chamber Philharmonic") conducted by David Zinman; Piano Concerto No. 26 with cadenzas by Edwin Fischer, performed by Homero Francesch with the Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie Bremen conducted by Gerd Albrecht; and Antonio Salieri′s opera Tarare with Anna Caleb as Spinette,Jean Pierre Lafont as Atar, and the Radiosinfonieorchester Stuttgart ("Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra") conducted by Jean-Claude Malgoire.

- CONCERT SEGMENT: Piano Concerto No. 19 in F major, K. 459, performed by Radu Lupu with the Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie Bremen ("Bremen German Chamber Philharmonic") conducted by David Zinman, recorded in the Sophiensaal in Munich, Germany.

Episode 12:

- DOCUMENTARY SEGMENT: In 1787, Mozart received an invitation to Prague to conduct his opera buffa The Marriage of Figaro. The opera was a smash hit in Prague, and led to Mozart receiving a commission to compose the music for his opera Don Giovanni to a libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte (1749–1838). Music performed during the documentary includes portions of Symphony No. 38 in D major "Prague," K. 504, by the Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie Bremen ("Bremen German Chamber Philharmonic") conducted by Gerd Albrecht; Don Giovanni, K. 427, by István Gáli (as Don Giovanni), Zsuzsanna Dénes (as Donna Anna), László Polgár (as Leporello), and the Symphony Orchestra of the Hungarian Radio and Television conducted by Wilhelm Keitel; Piano Quartet No. 1 in G minor, K. 478, by the Ars Quartet; and 6 German Dances, K. 509, by the Chamber Ensemble of the National Theatre, Prague.

- CONCERT SEGMENT: Piano Concerto No. 23 in A major, K. 488, performed by Zoltán Kocsis with the Virtuosi di Praga conducted by Jiří Bělohlávek, recorded in the Rittersaal ("Knight′s Hall") of the Wallenstein Palace in Prague, Czechoslovakia.

Episode 11:

- DOCUMENTARY SEGMENT: In Vienna in 1786, Mozart composed the opera buffa The Marriage of Figaro. Mozart and his librettist, Lorenzo da Ponte (1749–1838), based it on a satirical political play by Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais (1732–1799), which was banned in the Austrian Empire. Although not as politically charged as Beaumarchais's work, The Marriage of Figaro nonetheless satirized the aristocracy and their relationships with their servants. It also broke new ground in opera in its three-dimensional treatment of its characters, its exploration of their sexual attractions to one another, and in its use and style of music, which departed from previous operatic conventions in many ways. Thanks to these qualities and to the palace intrigue and social politics that tended to determine musical success or failure in Vienna, the opera premiered in Vienna on 1 May 1786 but closed after only nine performances, receiving a mixed reception. Shortly after its premiere, however, connoisseurs of music in Prague invited Mozart to attend a performance of the opera in Prague, where it premiered in December 1786. In Prague, The Marriage of Figaro achieved tremendous success. In 1789, The Marriage of Figaro was revived in Vienna, cementing its place in the Mozart repertoire. Music performed during the documentary includes portions of Piano Concerto No. 24 in C minor, K. 491 – which Mozart composed in 1786, a few weeks before the world premiere of The Marriage of Figaro – performed by André Previn with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Previn; The Marriage of Figaro by István Gáti (as Figaro); Der Schauspieldirektor ("The Impresario"), K. 486, by István Rozsos (as Buff), Ingrid Kertesi (as Madame Herz), and Katalin Farkas (as Madame Silberklang); and Antonio Salieri′s (1750–1825) Prima la musica e poi le parole ("First the music and then the words") by Mária Zempeléni (as Tonina) with the Symphony Orchestra of the Hungarian Radio and Television conducted by Wilhelm Keitel.

- CONCERT SEGMENT: Piano Concerto No. 24 in C minor, K. 491 with cadenzas by André Previn, performed by André Previn with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Previn, recorded in the Grosse Galerie ("Great Gallery") at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, Austria.

Episode 10:

- DOCUMENTARY SEGMENT: Mozart enjoyed life in Vienna and never returned to Salzburg after a three-month stay there to visit his father Leopold in 1783. For his part, Leopold viewed Wolfgang′s lifestyle in Vienna as frivolous, and made his distaste known. But by the years from 1783 to 1785, Wolfgang had become history′s first successful freelance composer, and made a comfortable living from his compositions and performances. He enhanced his reputation by taking part in a number of large-scale concert events in Vienna known as musical "academies," each of which centered around the works of a featured composer. Wolfgang befriended Franz Joseph Haydn (1732–1809), celebrated by his contemporaries as the greatest composer of his time, and during a visit Leopold made to Vienna in 1785, Haydn thanked Leopold for his contribution to the musical education of Wolfgang, who Haydn said was the greatest composer he had ever known, leading to a warming of relations between Wolfgang and Leopold. Wolfgang often performed piano works by sight-reading them at their premiere without rehearsal, and his piano works from this period provide insight into his talent and skill as a performer. Music performed during the documentary includes portions of Piano Concerto No. 20 in D minor, K. 466 performed by Ivan Klánský with the Virtuosi di Praga conducted by Jiří Bělohlávek; the Great Mass in C minor, K. 427 performed by soprano Andrea Rost with the Bach-Collegium Stuttgart conducted by Helmuth Rilling; and String Quartet No. 19, K. 465 performed by the Talich Quartet.

- CONCERT SEGMENT: Piano Concerto No. 20 in D minor, K. 466, with cadenzas by Ivan Klánský, performed by Ivan Klánský with the Virtuosi di Praga conducted by Jiří Bělohlávek, recorded in the Rittersaal ("Knight's Hall") of the Wallenstein Palace in Prague, Czechoslovakia.

- DOCUMENTARY SEGMENT: After the death of Empress Maria Theresa in November 1780, Archbishop Colloredo in 1781 ordered Mozart to accompany him and his retinue to Vienna for the official mourning period. Resolved to stay in Vienna and chafing at the archbishop′s treatment of him, Mozart resigned from his service while in Vienna at the archbishop′s request and against his father Leopold′s wishes. In Vienna, giving music lessons, Mozart met the Webers, who had moved there from Mannheim after the death of the father Fridolin. By the summer of 1782, Mozart was in love with Constanze Weber, but needed money to marry her, get her away from her mother, and set up his own household with her. Mozart composed the opera buffa The Abduction from the Seraglio in 1782, and used the money he earned from it to "rescue" Constanze from her mother′s household. Music performed during the documentary includes portions of Piano Concerto No. 17 in G major, K. 453 performed by Dezső Ránki with the English Chamber Orchestra conducted by Jeffrey Tate; The Abduction from the Seraglio by Dénes Gulyás (as Belmonte) and the Symphony Orchestra of the Hungarian Radio and Television, Budapest, conducted by Wilhelm Keitel; and Sonata for Violin and Piano, K. 371, by Jitka Nováková (violin) and František Kúda (piano).

- CONCERT SEGMENT: Piano Concerto No. 17 in G major, K. 453, performed by Dezső Ránki with the English Chamber Orchestra conducted by Jeffrey Tate, recorded in the Grosse Galerie ("Great Gallery") at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, Austria.

Episode 8:

- DOCUMENTARY SEGMENT: Mozart disliked his birthplace and childhood home, Salzburg, and found it humiliating to make music for the Archbishop of Salzburg, Count Hieronymus von Colloredo. After a prominent French pianist named Mademoiselle Jeunehomme – her first name is not recorded – visited Salzburg and performed some of Wolfgang's works, he and his family decided that he should visit Paris. When Mozart wrote the Archbishop and diplomatically requested that he grant Mozart a leave of absence so that he could travel and seek other opportunities, the Archbishop responded by firing Mozart, so Mozart and his mother set out for Mannheim, where they stayed for four months, and then moved on to Paris, arriving there in March 1778. In Paris, he received few job offers and turned down the ones he did receive. On 3 July 1778, his mother died in Paris. Mozart returned to Salzburg with no job and large debts, never to return to France. Although he viewed himself as a failure during this period of his life, it was a fruitful time in terms of his musical compositions.

- CONCERT SEGMENT: Piano Concerto No. 9 in E-flat major, "Jeunehomme," K. 271, performed by Mitsuko Uchida with the Mozarteum Orchestra Salzburg conducted by Jeffrey Tate, recorded at the Mozarteum University of Salzburg during the Salzburg Festival in 1989.

Episode 7:

- DOCUMENTARY SEGMENT: Mozart arrived in Mannheim in October 1777, hoping to become court composer to the Elector of Bavaria, Charles IV Theodore (1724–1799); under Charles Theodore, Mannheim and Schwetzingen, where Charles Theodore maintained a country palace, had become important European artistic and cultural centers. Travelling without his father Leopold, it was the first time in Mozart′s life that he had sought employment and artistic recognition on his own. He pursued a permanent paid position at court without success, in no small part because of his lack of diplomacy and diffidence. While awaiting a chance to secure full-time employment, he tried to met expenses by composing music and giving music lessons, including for the elector's second family by his deceased mistress. He used his Piano Concert No. 8 in C Major, K. 246, in teaching his students. Music performed during the documentary includes portions of The Flute Quartet No. 1 in D major, K. 285, by Hana Huberná (flute) and members of the Talich Quartet and Piano Concert No. 8 in C Major, K. 246, by Christian Zacharias and the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra conducted by Gianluigi Gelmetti.

- CONCERT SEGMENT: Piano Concert No. 8 in C Major K. 246, performed by Christian Zacharias with the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Gianluigi Gelmetti, recorded in the Rokokotheater ("Rococo Theater") at Schwetzingen Palace in Schwetzingen, Germany, where Charles Theodore’s court spent a great deal of time during Mozart′s stay.

Episode 6:

- DOCUMENTARY SEGMENT: Mozart arrived in Mannheim in 1777 to seek a position in the court of the Elector of Bavaria Charles IV Theodore (1724–1799). He spent a year there, encountering the Mannheim school of composers and orchestral techniques, and the school had a major influence on his future compositions. In Mannheim, he met the music copyist Franz Fridolin Weber (1691–1754) and his four daughters. Mozart fell in love with Weber′s second-oldest child, the soprano Aloysia Weber (c. 1760–1839). Weber′s oldest child, the soprano Josepha Weber (1758–1819), later created the role of the Queen of the Night in Mozart′s 1791 opera The Magic Flute. Weber′s third child, soprano Constanze Weber (1762–1842), later became Mozart's wife. Mozart also met the conductor of the Mannheim orchestra, Christian Cannabich (c. 1731–1798), who greatly impressed him, and he composed for Cannabich′s daughter Rose. Music performed during the documentary includes portions of Sonata No. 22 for Violin and Piano, K. 293d, by Jitka Nováková (violin) and František Kúda (piano) and Symphony No. 31 in D Major "Paris", K. 297, by the Mozarteum Orchestra Salzburg conducted by Jeffrey Tate.

- CONCERT SEGMENT: Piano Concerto No. 6 in B Major, K. 238, performed by Christian Zacharias with the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Gianluigi Gelmetti, recorded in the Rokokotheater ("Rococo Theater") at Schwetzingen Palace in Schwetzingen, Germany, where Charles Theodore’s court spent a great deal of time during Mozart′s stay in Mannheim.

Episode 5:

- DOCUMENTARY SEGMENT: During the Mozart family′s tour of Italy, they visited Milan and Bologna in 1770, where Mozart wrote his opera Mitridate, re di Ponto, first performed in Milan in December 1770. At Bologna, Leopold Mozart arranged with Padre Giovanni Battista Martini, an instructor at the city′s renowned Accademia Filarmonica di Bologna ("Philharmonic Academy of Bologna") – which has educated many of the greatest composers and musicians from Italy and elsewhere – for Wolfgang to take the entrance examination. Wolfgang was too young to attend the academy, but Leopold thought that the examination would be a good vehicle for him to demonstrate his talent. Wolfgang completed the examination in a remarkable 30 minutes and passed, although Martini bent the rules of the examination and "corrected" the leading voice Mozart had written to conform to more established compositional norms. Music performed during the documentary includes portions of Divertimento No. 1 in E-flat major, K. 113, by the Chamber Ensemble of the National Theater, Prague, and Aria, K. 73, by Hana Zachatová and the Chamber Ensemble of the National Theater, Prague.

- CONCERT SEGMENT: Piano Concerto No. 5 in D major, K. 175, performed by the Orchestra della Radiotelevisione della Svizzera Italiana ("Radio and Television Orchestra of Italian Switzerland") conducted by Marc Andreae with soloist Malcolm Frager, recorded in the Teatro Scientifico del Bibiena in Mantua, Italy. The piece is Mozart′s first fully original piano concerto.

Episode 4:

- DOCUMENTARY SEGMENT: In December 1769,Leopold Mozart (1719–1787) set out with his son Wolfgang on a journey to Italy, the center of European musical culture at the time, to further Wolfgang′s musical development and his fame as a performer. In early 1770, they visited first Verona and then Mantua, and in both cities Wolfgang′s performances drew large and enthusiastic crowds. Wolfgang composed his first string quartet, String Quartet No. 1 in G major, K. 80/73f, during this journey. By this time, Wolfgang, with help from Leopold, already had begun to compose and perform early piano concerti – pasticcio arrangements for piano and orchestra based on piano sonatas by other composers. Music performed during the documentary includes a portion of Piano Concerto No. 1 in F Major, K. 37 performed by the Orchestra della Radiotelevisione della Svizzera Italiana ("Radio and Television Orchestra of Italian Switzerland") conducted by Marc Andreae with soloist Heidrun Holtmann.

- CONCERT SEGMENT: Piano Concerto No. 1 in F Major, K. 37 and Piano Concerto No. 4 in G major, K. 41, performed by the Orchestra della Radiotelevisione della Svizzera Italiana ("Radio and Television Orchestra of Italian Switzerland") conducted by Marc Andreae with soloist Heidrun Holtmann, recorded in the Teatro Scientifico del Bibiena ("Bibiena Scientific Theater") in Mantua, Italy, in 1989.

Episode 3:

A 1991 Documentary series hosted by Andre Previn and Michael Kitchen as reader of Mozart′s letters.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart spent a third of his life travelling, and the 13-part 'Mozart on Tour' series focuses on these journeys and their influence on his life and work, highlighting a piano concerto that demonstrates his musical development at the time of each trip.

Mozart on Tour was produced to coincide with the 1991 bicentennial of Mozart′s death. Each episode is centred on a different European city and combines travelogue-style narration with musical excerpts and period re-enactment. Conductor and composer Andre Previn provides the historical and musical background, and actor Michael Kitchen reads from the many letters that Mozart wrote home while on his travels. Each episode includes a full performance of one of Mozart's twenty-seven piano concertos played by an internationally renowned soloist, orchestra and conductor. The performances take place in appropriately historical settings.

Episode 1 - DOCUMENTARY SEGMENT: During his childhood, Mozart and his family visited London from April 1764 to July 1765. It was a happy and successful visit in which the court of King George III idolized him and his family and Mozart met and associated with some of the most important musicians of the time. Among them were Johann Christian Bach (1735–1782) and Karl Friedrich Abel (1723–1787), both of whom had spent a significant amount of time in Italy and were influenced by musical developments there. The Mozart family also became friendly with Giovanni Manzuoli (1720–1782), an Italian vocalist residing and performing in London at the time, and became familiar with his style of virtuoso singing. Bach, Abel, and Manzuoli gave Mozart first-hand exposure to the Italian musical style that would influence him for the rest of his life, the Italian school of musical composition, and the pianoforte, a fairly new instrument at the time. These experiences inspired Mozart's style, which culminated in works like 1782′s Piano Concerto No. 12 in A Major.

- CONCERT SEGMENT: Piano Concerto No.12 in A Major, performed by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra with soloist and conductor Vladimir Ashkenazy. Recorded in the Great Hall of Lancaster House at Hampton Court Palace, London.

Episode 2:

A 1987 Trilion Pictures production presents George Frederick Handel's "Water Music" from The Banqueting House - Whitehall London. Musicians and dancers perform at the Banqueting House in Whitehall, London in authentic Baroque costume and with period surroundings.

English Bach Festival Dancers
Choreography by Belinda Quirey
Costumes (from original designs) by Derek West
The English Bach Festival Orchestra
Conducted by and Solo Violinist: Christopher Hirons
Director: Derek Hanlon

The Water Music (German: Wassermusik) is a collection of orchestral movements, often published as three suites, composed by George Frideric Handel. It premiered on 17 July 1717, in response to King George I's request for a concert on the River Thames. The Water Music opens with a French overture and includes minuets, bourrées, and hornpipes. It is divided into three suites

About the Baroque Dance: When we think of "baroque dance", we often think of enormous wigs and frilly dresses, a rond de jambe and graceful entrechats. This is of course true, to a certain extent: as the Belle Danse developed during the 17th century, it was a dance reserved for the nobility and gentlemen, wearing their finest clothes.

However, under the reign of Louis XIV, the baroque dance was not only a source of entertainment or a simple pass-time. Quite the contrary, it was a veritable art-form, with a social and political impact. In 17th century France, dance was an integral part of a gentleman's education. The nobility learned to read and to write, to handle weapons, and to dance. But what did baroque dance actually look like? "This dance is built upon the premise that if you can walk, you can dance", explains choreographer Béatrice Massin, advisor to director Gérard Corbiau for the film Le Roi Danse (2000).

"Everything is built from very simple elements since the ball dances were necessarily accessible to all, nobody was a professional at this time. The baroque body was a round one, fully capable of taking advantage of the space. A body that takes pleasure both in volume but also in height. On every strong beat, for example, the body rises. There is a particular way of using the arms since the shoulders were not free when wearing court costumes. In the baroque dance, the ports de bras (name of a general arm movement in dance and ballet) thus remains oriented towards the pelvis and the lower part of the body, whilst the bust stretches upward, as if to assert grandeur and ease. As for the steps, the premises of classical dance with entrechats, chassés, and pas de bourrée... All variants that were built from a walking step."

A 2009 Arts Documentary narrated by Samuel West. Audio in English with subtitles for the Italian parts.

The extraordinary story of one of world's great, lost masterpieces: Caravaggio's "The Taking of Christ". This film traces the painting's journey from its birth in Rome in 1602 to its amazing re-discovery in 1990.

"The Taking of Christ" by Italian Baroque master Caravaggio today holds pride of place in the National Gallery of Ireland in Dublin. Its subject is the arrest of Jesus, the moment when the son of God, is betrayed with a kiss - the Judas kiss. 400 years ago the painting was one of the most costly and celebrated artworks of its time, but in a confusion of discarded fashions and lost fortunes, it vanished. Its rediscovery is one of the most extraordinary detective stories in the history of art, traversing time, countries, war, social upheaval and family fortunes.

A 1980 Documentary written and directed by James S. Ackerman.

The influence of Palladio also reached to the United States, where the architecture and symbols of the Roman Republic were adapted for the architecture and institutions of the newly independent nation. The grand buildings of Washington, D.C. would look quite different were it not for the work of a Renaissance architect and his influence on Thomas Jefferson

The Massachusetts governor and architect Thomas Dawes also admired the style, and used it when rebuilding Harvard Hall at Harvard University in 1766. Palladio's villas inspired Monticello, the residence of the third U.S. President, Thomas Jefferson, himself an architect. Jefferson organized a competition for the first United States Capitol building. It was won by William Thornton with a design inspired in part by Palladio and La Rotonda. The One Hundred Eleventh Congress of the United States of America called him the "Father of American Architecture" (Congressional Resolution no. 259 of 6 December 2010). His influence can also be seen in American plantation buildings.

A 1978 TV programme narrated by Tim Benton.

A guided tour through three Italian villas designed by Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio.

Andrea Palladio (November 30, 1508 – August 19, 1580) was an Italian architect. He was born in Padua and died at Maser, near Treviso. Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, primarily Vitruvius, is widely considered to be one of the most influential individuals in the history of architecture. While he designed churches and palaces, he was best known for country houses and villas. His teachings, summarized in the architectural treatise, The Four Books of Architecture, gained him wide recognition. Palladio is known as one of the most influential architects in Western architecture. His architectural works have "been valued for centuries as the quintessence of High Renaissance calm and harmony".

The city of Vicenza, with its 23 buildings designed by Palladio, and 24 Palladian villas of the Veneto are listed by UNESCO as part of a World Heritage Site named City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto. The churches of Palladio are to be found within the "Venice and its Lagoon" UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Related Documentary:

Casa Ricordi (House of Ricordi) is a 1954 French-Italian historical biographical melodrama film based on the early history of the Italian music publishing house Ricordi. It is directed by Carmine Gallone and stars Märta Torén, Marcello Mastroianni and Micheline Presle. Audio in Italian with English subtitles.

The film traces the fictionalized history of the great dynasty of music publishers (at first only through scores and then records) Ricordi, which took place throughout the nineteenth century with Giovanni, the founder, and then his son Tito and his grandson Giulio. The film's sets were designed by Mario Chiari. It was shot at the Cinecittà Studios and on location in Milan, Paris and Rome.

The House of Ricordi, great music publishing family of Milan, fed the spark that flamed into the Golden Age of Italian Opera. It unleashed a tide of genius by fostering the careers of some of the greatest composers of all time. The film describes meetings with the great protagonists of Italian opera: from Rossini to Bellini, from Donizetti to Verdi, ending with Puccini at the beginning of the twentieth century, all of whom passed through Ricordi publishers to have their works printed.

Casa Ricordi is a publisher of primarily classical music and opera. Its classical repertoire represents one of the important sources in the world through its publishing of the work of the major 19th-century Italian composers such as Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti, Vincenzo Bellini, Giuseppe Verdi, and, later in the century, Giacomo Puccini, composers with whom one or another of the Ricordi family came into close contact. Founded in Milan in 1808 as G. Ricordi & C. by violinist Giovanni Ricordi (1785–1853), the Ricordi company became a totally family-run organization until 1919, when outside management was appointed. Four generations of Ricordis were at the helm of the company, Giovanni being succeeded in 1853 by his son Tito (1811–1888) (who had worked for his father since 1825). Tito's son was Giulio (1840–1912). He had also worked for his father, beginning full-time in 1863, and then took over from 1888 until his death in 1912. Finally, Giulio's son, also named Tito, (1865–1933) replaced his father until 1919. By the 1840s and throughout that decade, Casa Ricordi had grown to be the largest music publisher in southern Europe and in 1842 the company created the musical journal the Gazzetta Musicale di Milano.

Cast & Characters:
Paolo Stoppa as Giovanni Ricordi
Renzo Giovampietro as Tito I Ricordi
Andrea Checchi as Giulio Ricordi
Roland Alexandre as Gioachino Rossini
Roldano Lupi as Domenico Barbaja
Märta Torén as Isabella Colbran
Marcello Mastroianni as Gaetano Donizetti
Micheline Presle as Virginia Marchi
Maurice Ronet as Vincenzo Bellini
Myriam Bru as Luisa Lewis
Nadia Gray as Giulia Grisi
Fosco Giachetti as Giuseppe Verdi
Elisa Cegani as Giuseppina Strepponi
Gabriele Ferzetti as Giacomo Puccini
Fausto Tozzi as Arrigo Boito

Operas used in the movie:
1. Il barbiere di Siviglia - Composed by Gioachino Rossini (1816)
Sung by Tito Gobbi and Giulio Neri
2. L'elisir d'amore - Composed by Gaetano Donizetti (1832)
3. I puritani - Composed by Vincenzo Bellini (1835)
4. Un ballo in maschera - Composed by Giuseppe Verdi (1859)
5. Otello - Composed by Giuseppe Verdi (1887)
Final aria sung by Mario Del Monaco
6. La bohème - Composed by Giacomo Puccini (1892-1895)
Sung by Renata Tebaldi as Mimi
7. Nabucco - Composed by Giuseppe Verdi
[Opera Excerpt]

Singers: Mario Del Monaco, Tito Gobbi, Renata Tebaldi, Giulio Neri, Italo Tajo, Gianni Poggi, Giulietta Simionato, Gino Mattera, Marinella Meli.
Conductors: Franco Capuana, Gianandrea Gavazzeni, Gabriele Santini, Franco Ferrara;
Choirmaster Giuseppe Conca.

Historical inaccuracies:
- The death of Vincenzo Bellini takes place on the evening of the premiere of the opera I puritani. In reality the opera was performed for the first time on 24 January 1835 but Bellini died on 23 September of that same year.
- In the episode of Verdi, when a bitter Verdi goes to the countryside where he will write Othello, in reality there are still about twenty years left and great successes to tell.
- In the film the date of the first move of the Ricordi headquarters towards the Casa degli Omenoni is indicated as 23 March 1848 by Tito Ricordi who we see hanging the portrait of his late father on a wall. In reality Giovanni Ricordi died only in 1853.
- In the film it is said that Giulio Ricordi fought at the age of sixteen on the barricades of the Five Days of Milan, but in reality in 1848 he was just 8 years old.

Claudio Abbado at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, Rome (2001) with the Berlin Philharmonic, and hosted by Wulf Konold who analyzes the composer Ludwig van Beethoven's most famous works. Audio in English, with subtitles for the German parts.

The first four momentous notes of Ludwig van Beethoven's Fifth Symphony are perhaps the most instantly recognized in all of Western classical music. 'Thus Fate knocks at the door!' announced the composer- at least, according to the apocryphal story. Since then the symphony, from the dramutic opening bars to the blazing C major finale, has come to symbohize Beethoven at his most gloriously heroic. The influential critic and theorist A.B. Marx (1795-1866) even went so far as to proclaim that the work embodied 'the decisive fate of all mankind'. Yet the symphony itself is altogether more complex und enigmatic than such declarations suggest.

Following the premiere of the Fifth, Beethoven's reputation as a composer continued to flourish. Even the encroaching deafness that would, by 1814, become virtually absolute could not dampen his genius. In defiance of his hearing loss, he went on to produce such masterpieces as the choral Ninth Symphony, the Missa Solemnis and the late quartets - music of extraordinary beauty, grace und visceral power. He was soon firmly established as one of the most famous and revered musical figures of the age, and became almost an object of pilgrimage for aspiring young composers. The conversation books, which due to his deafness were his primary means of communication, record many of these encounters. In late 1826 Beethoven fell seriously ill, and, on 26 Murch of the following year, he died. Such was his renown that more than 20,000 people came to pay tribute to him at his funerul three days later, including Franz Schubert, who was one of the torchbearers.


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