From the linux.conf.au 2019 — Christchurch, New Zealand
Benno Rice https://2019.linux.conf.au/schedule/p... systemd is, to put it mildly, controversial. As a FreeBSD developer I decided I wanted to know why. I delved into the history of bootstrap systems, and even the history of UNIX and other contemporary operating systems, to try and work out why something like systemd was seem as necessary, if not desirable. I also tried to work out why so many people found it so upsetting, annoying, or otherwise rage-inducing. Join me on a journey through the bootstrap process, the history of init, the reasons why change can be scary, and the discovery of a part of your OS you may not even know existed. linux.conf.au is a conference about the Linux operating system, and all aspects of the thriving ecosystem of Free and Open Source Software that has grown up around it. Run since 1999, in a different Australian or New Zealand city each year, by a team of local volunteers, LCA invites more than 500 people to learn from the people who shape the future of Open Source. For more information on the conference see https://linux.conf.au/
The Big Valley is an American Western television series which ran on ABC from September 15, 1965 to May 19, 1969, starring Barbara Stanwyck as the widow of a wealthy 19th-century California rancher and Richard Long, Lee Majors, Peter Breck and Linda Evans as her family. The series was created by A.I. Bezzerides and Louis F. Edelman and produced by Levy-Gardner-Laven for Four Star Television.
Derek Muller introduces viewers to “white hat” hackers, the U.S. Secret Service’s cybercrime division including West Point soldiers, all of whom are working to protect us from the risks associated with persistent connectivity, as the Web transitions from a medium to a utility, on par with electricity.
From the early 1990s
High performance computing training and education typically emphasizes the first-principles of scientific programming, such as numerical algorithms and parallel programming techniques. However, many computational scientists need to know how to compile and link to applications built by others. Likewise, those who create the libraries and applications need to understand how to package their code it so that it is straightforward for others to use. In this webinar, we will go through the process of building and installing open-source software. The focus will be on packages that use a configure script generated by the GNU Autoconf utility, since most open-source packages provide such a script. I will summarize my observations on the most common difficulties computational scientists encounter when trying to build and install open-source software themselves, and how to address them. I will also discuss common deficiencies I have found in the packaging of open-source scientific packages will also be discussed, along with some suggestions for correcting them.
New York City Hackers is an independent documentary by Stig-Lennart Sorensen released in the year 2000. Most of the filming occurs in in New York at the H2K conference, 2600 meeting and an Off the Hook radio show. There is also a coverage of the original MIT hackers from the TMRC club.
The documentary explores the hacker culture by distinguishing computer hackers from common criminals. In the very beginning the viewer is presented with a segment from Off the Hook radio show where Emmanuel Goldstein, the show's host, uses Kevin Mitnick as an example of a hacker distinct from people perpetrating destructive denial of service (DoS) attacks against websites. Not everybody with access to tools and resources to pull off a successful DoS attack is a hacker, Emmanuel observes. Cheshire Catalyst describes hacking as a process of hacking away at a keyboard until computer does what you want it to do. He also contrasts true hackers with sensationalized “14 year olds twerps who crack into computers” also described as crackers.
In order to track down the historical meaning of the word hacker, NYC hackers moves to MIT's Tech Model Railroad Club or TMRC. TMRC attracted a lot of electrical engineering hackers in the 1960s who liked solving logic problems presented by the electro-mechanical train control system at the club. Alan Kotok, one of the original MIT hackers, describes how he slowly progressed to hacking on a TX-0 and the telephone system. Alan recognizes the grand temptation of hackers to demonstrate their full mastery of a system by getting it to do things that it wasn't intended to do.
At a monthly 2600 meeting, Mike Hudack, a chief scientists at a security company, notes that meeting's attendees are mostly made up of people who wish to be hackers rather than actual hackers. The reason for this is simply the fear for actual hackers to appear at such public meetings due to crackdowns by law enforcement agencies which tend to assume computer hackers as guilty before proven otherwise.
The last two segments of the documentary describe two significant political and legal issues that hackers are involved in. As Cheshire Catalyst describes it, hackers would much rather spend their time dealing with technical challenges. However, because politics is invading the technology, hackers are becoming more involved in politics to voice their opinions. The first example of hackers getting entangled in politics is the legal action that MPAA took against 2600 magazine after the latter mirrored DeCSS code, a program used to break DVD protection mechanism. The second example of hackers getting politically involved is the issue of government controlled Internet. According to Eugene Kashpureff, the US government controls IP address allocation, domain name space and governs how the Tier 1 Internet providers can do their business. All of these control mechanisms effectively translates to a complete government control which impedes people's basic rights of freedom of speech and freedom of privacy.
This is a 2001 documentary film sympathetic to the convicted computer hacker Kevin Mitnick, directed by Emmanuel Goldstein and produced by 2600 Films.
The documentary centers on the fate of Mitnick, who is claimed to have been misrepresented in the feature film Takedown (2000) produced by Miramax and adapted from the book by the same name by Tsutomu Shimomura and John Markoff, which is based on disputed events. The film also documents a number of computer enthusiasts who drive across the United States searching for Miramax representatives and demonstrating their discontent with certain aspects of the bootleg script of Takedown they had acquired. One of their major points of criticism was that the script ended with Mitnick being convicted to serve a long-term prison sentence, while in reality, at the time the film's production, Mitnick had not yet even had a trial but nonetheless was incarcerated for five years without bail in a high-security facility. Freedom Downtime also touches on what happened to other hackers after being sentenced. The development of the Free Kevin movement is also covered.
Several notable and iconic figures from the hacking community appear in the movie, including Phiber Optik (Mark Abene), Bernie S (Ed Cummings), Alex Kasper, and director Emmanuel Goldstein (Eric Corley). Freedom Downtime tries to communicate a different view of the hacker community from that usually shown by the mainstream media, with hackers being depicted as curious people who rarely intend to cause damage, driven by a desire to explore and conduct pranks. The film goes on to question the rationality of placing computer hackers who went "over the line" in the same environment as serious felons.
It also contains interviews with people related to Mitnick and hacker culture in general. The authors of Hafner, Katie; Markoff, John (1991). Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-68322-5., ex-couple Katie Hafner and John Markoff, appear in very different roles. While Hafner's empathy for Mitnick is shown to have grown, Markoff continues to defend his critical book and articles in The New York Times newspaper about the hacker. Markoff is ridiculed as the narrator, director Goldstein (a hacker himself), points out his factual errors during the interview. Reba Vartanian, Mitnick's grandmother, also appears in a number of interview segments. Furthermore, lawyers, friends, and libertarians give their view of the story. Footage and interviews from the DEF CON and Hackers on Planet Earth conventions try to dispel some hacker myths and confirm others.
The film premiered at H2K, the 2000 H.O.P.E. convention. After that the film saw a limited independent theatrical release and was shown at film festivals. It was released on VHS and sold via the 2600 web site.
In June 2004, a DVD was released. The DVD includes a wealth of extra material spread over two discs, including three hours of extra footage, an interview with Kevin Mitnick in January 2003 (shortly after his supervised release ended) It also includes subtitles in 20 languages, provided by volunteers.
That is also Emmanuel Goldstein (Eric Corley) off to the side.
Talk radio host Rush Limbaugh sounds off on 'Hannity' on Democrats continuing to attack and impugn the president after the release of the Mueller report.
Originally posted on TerroristTube Mar 29, 2019
A look at the people who are driving the personal computer industry.
Guests: Gary Kildall, Digital Research; Steve Wozniak, Apple; Adam Osborne, Osborne Computer; Lore Harp, Vector Graphic; Gene Amdahl, Trilogy Systems. Originally broadcast in 1984.
What will we do with computers in the future?
Steve Wozniak, claims he built the Apple 1 and gave it to a teacher in the days before computers were ever heard of. Diane Ravitch, Director Encyclopaedia Britannica discusses the classroom potential, it requires a user, not a watcher. Alan Kay, Apple Fellow, discusses computer simulations. These models are our voodoo dolls. Simulation is what the computer is all about. Ray Bradbury, Author, describes how life is wonderful and we need to teach our kids this.
There is a futuristic demonstration of an imaginary Apple product that looks like a plastic Rolodex. A little child is showing how to use this product to his teacher. The child then gives a PowerPoint style presentation to a middle-school class. Agents and Databases- Students can watch, interact and revisit key lesson activities. Collaborate with a friend.
Computers could be used for adult learning and literacy because the computer is not threatening. An actor then opens a futuristic book style tablet computer and is learning to read. Once the actor has finished his lesson he circles a sports article and then scans it into the fold-out tablet.
Alvin Toffler, Author, describes how voice interaction is the future of computing. The keyboard is a primitive way of interacting and getting information into the machine. Almost as important to Alvin is the capability of computers to do automatic translation, even if that translation is not 100% perfect.
Visualization - The super computers of today will be the desktop computers of tomorrow. There are two kinds of things you can do with more computing power. You can do more of what you are doing now faster. And there are occasionally things are unthinkable to do now. Another demonstration of the little track-master thingy connected to a presentation display.
Hypermedia - The ideas and possibilities of hypermedia have been around for a long time. A futuristic demonstration of engineering and design are again shown using voice interaction. A new demonstration of dinosaur games in action. Why do I love dinosaurs so much? We are all doing the same work but we are doing it in different ways.
Chromosaurus Animation courtesy Pacific Data Images
Mt Shasta Animation courtesy JPL
Gas Jet Visualization courtesy NCSA
An early look at the Apple Macintosh computer, software, and accessories during the first MacWorld Exposition in San Francisco.
Paul Schindler gives a bad review of the Mac. I can agree with since the Apple IIGS was a far superior machine.
Here’s the fifth and final episode of The Machine That Changed the World, this one focusing on global information networks including the Internet, and the communication benefits and privacy risks they create. This is the most familiar material of the documentary, so I’m going to skip the notes and annotations this time. I hope you enjoyed the documentary as much as I did.
Robert Lucky (AT&T Bell Labs), Dave Hughes, Kathleen Bonner (Trader, Fidelity), George Hayter (Former Head of Trading, London Stock Exchange), Ben Bagdikian (UC Berkeley), Arthur Miller (Harvard Law School), Forman Brown (songwriter, died in 1996), Tan Chin Nam (Chairman, National Computer Board of Singapore), B.G. Lee (Minister of Trade and Industry, Singapore), Lee Fook Wah, (Assistant Traffic Manager, MRT Singapore), David Assouline (French Activist, now a senator), Mitch Kapor (founder, Lotus), Michael Drennan (Air traffic controller, Dallas-Fort Worth)
The fourth episode of The Machine That Changed the World covers the history of artificial intelligence and the challenges that come from trying to teach computers to think and learn like us.
Marvin Minsky (MIT), Hubert Dreyfus (UC Berkeley), Edward Feigenbaum (Stanford University), Hans Moravec (Carnegie Mellon Robotics Institute), Doug Lenat (University of Texas, Austin), Dean Pomerleau (Carnegie Mellon Robotics Institute), Terrence Sejnowski (Salk Institute)
The third episode of The Machine That Changed the World covers the development of the personal computer and the modern graphical user interface, which made computing easy to use for everyone. Highlights include interviews with Apple’s Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, drawing with a computer in 1963, great footage from Xerox PARC, and some 1992-era predictions of the future from Apple and others.
Like the books of the Middle Ages, early computers were large, extremely expensive, and maintained by a select few. It seemed unlikely they’d be commonplace, partly because they were so difficult to use. Developing software was extremely tedious, the interface limited to writing instructions on punched cards. Ivan Sutherland’s revolutionary Sketchpad was the first graphical user interface, pioneering the fields of interactive computing, computer-aided drawing, and object-oriented programming. Douglas Engelbart‘s NLS, demonstrated in the Mother of All Demos from 1968, demonstrated for the first time several concepts that would become commonplace: the mouse, CRT display, windowing systems, hypertext, videoconferencing, collaborative editing, screen sharing, word processing, and a search engine ordering by relevance. Xerox, realizing computers might lead to paperless communication, created the PARC research laboratory to make computers easy to use. They unified several concepts into a usable computer environment, the Xerox Alto, inventing the modern GUI paradigm of folders, files, and documents, along with Ethernet, Smalltalk, WYSIWIG editing, and the laser printer. Xerox marketed the Xerox Star, but it was expensive and a commercial failure.
In 1971, the invention of the microprocessor led to affordable computer kits like the Altair 8800. Groups of computer hobbyists like the Homebrew Computer Club led to a cottage industry of hardware and software startups, including the founders of Apple Computer. Their Apple I in 1976 and the Apple II in 1977 were huge hits. The success of the personal computer, including the Commodore PET, Atari 400/800, and TRS-80, inspired IBM to enter the market with the PC in 1981. They soon dominated the industry. Inspired by the work at Xerox PARC, Apple responded with the Macintosh, the first successful mass-produced computer with a mouse and GUI.
Software enabled computers to become diverse machines, able to be used for business use, flight simulators, music, illustration, or anything else that could be imagined. Pure software companies like Lotus and Microsoft became tremendously successful, making their founders and early employees very rich. Those using computers required no knowledge of how it worked, including an entire generation raised on computers as familiar objects. The episode concludes with some excellent conceptual designs of future computers from Apple, and a discussion of the potential uses of virtual reality in future computing.
Canon John Tiller (Library Master, Hereford Cathedral), Mitch Kapor (Founder, Lotus), Robert Taylor (Xerox PARC), Ted Nelson (Creator, Project Xanadu), Douglas Engelbart, Larry Tesler (Xerox PARC), Alan Kay (Xerox PARC), Ted Hoff (Co-inventor, microprocessor), Steve Jobs (Cofounder, Apple), Steve Wozniak (Cofounder, Apple), Mike Markkula (Investor, Apple), Lee Felsenstein (Designer, Osborne 1), Bill Gates (Chairman, Microsoft), Chris Peters (Manager, Office), Anne Meyer (Center for Applied Special Tech.), Dr. Henry Fuchs (UNC, Chapel Hill), Dr. Jane Richards (UNC, Chapel Hill), Dr. Frederick P. Brooks, Jr (UNC, Chapel Hill)
Synopsis: The rise of commercial computing, from UNIVAC to IBM in the 1950s and 1960s.
Shortly after the war ended, ENIAC‘s creators founded the first commercial computer company, the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation in 1946. The early history of the company’s funding and progress is told through interviews and personal home videos. They underestimated the cost and time to build UNIVAC I, their new computer for the US Census Bureau, quickly sending the company into financial trouble. Meanwhile, in London, the J. Lyons and Co. food empire teamed up with the EDSAC developers at Cambridge to build LEO, their own computer to manage inventory and payroll. It was a huge success, inspiring Lyons to start building computers for other companies.
The Eckert-Mauchly company was in trouble, with several high-profile Defense Department contracts withdrawn because of a mistaken belief that John Mauchly had Communist ties. After several attempts to save the company, the company was sold to Remington-Rand in 1950. The company, then focused on electric razors and business machines, gave UNIVAC its television debut by tabulating live returns during the 1952 presidential election. To CBS’s amazement, it accurately predicted an Eisenhower landslide with only 1% of the vote. UNIVAC soon made appearances in movies and cartoons, leading to more business.
IBM was late to enter the computing business, though they’d built the massive SSEC in 1948 for scientific research. When the US Census ordered a UNIVAC, Thomas Watson, Jr. recognized the threat to the tabulating machine business. IBM introduced their first commercial business computers in 1953, the mass-produced IBM 650. While inferior technology, it soon dominated the market with their strong sales force, relative affordability, and integration with existing tabulating machines. In 1956, IBM soared past Remington-Rand to become the largest computer company in the world. By 1960, IBM captured 75% of the US computer market.
But developing software for these systems often cost several times the hardware itself, because programming was so difficult and programmers were hard to find. FORTRAN was one of the first higher-level languages, designed for scientists and mathematicians. It didn’t work well for business use, so COBOL soon followed. This led to wider adoption in different industries, as software was developed that could automate human labor. “Automation” become a serious fear, as humans were afraid they’d lose their jobs to machines. Across the country, companies like Bank of America (with ERMA) were eliminating thousands of tedious tabulating jobs with a single computer, though the country’s prosperity and booming job market tempered some of that fear.
In the ’50s, vacuum tubes were an essential component of the electronics industry, located in every computer, radio, and television. Transistors meant that far more complex computers could be designed, but couldn’t be built because wiring them together was a logistical nightmare. The “tyranny of numbers” was solved in 1959 with the first working integrated circuit, developed and introduced independently by both Texas Instruments and Fairchild. But ICs were virtually ignored until adopted by NASA and the military for use in lunar landers, guided missiles, and jets. Electronics manufacturers soon realized the ability to mass-produce ICs. Within a decade, ICs cost pennies to produce while becoming a thousand times more powerful. The result was the birth of the Silicon Valley and a reborn electronics industry.
This is the episode which the BBC keeps blocking all over the place. Get those web torrents working!
This episode has also been mislabeled "Great Brains."
The first part begins with a brief introduction to the series, summarizing the impact of computers on every aspect of our lives, attributed to their versatile nature. The history of computing begins with the original definition of “computers,” human beings like William Shanks that calculated numbers by hand. Frustration with human error led Charles Babbage to develop his difference engine, the first mechanical computer. He later designed the analytical engine, the first general-purpose programmable computer, but it was never finished. Ada Lovelace assisted Babbage with the design and working out programs for the unbuilt machine, making her the first programmer.
100 years later, German engineer Konrad Zuse built the Z1, the first functional general-purpose computer, using binary counting with mechanical telephone relays. During World War II, Zuse wanted to switch to vacuum tubes, but Hitler killed the project because it would take too long. At the University of Pennsylvania, John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert built ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic computer, to aid in military calculations. They didn’t finish in time to be useful for the war, but soon after, Eckert and Mauchly started the first commercial computer company. It took years before they brought a computer to market, so a British radar engineer named Freddie Williams beat them to building the first computer with stored programs. In Cambridge, Maurice Wilkes built EDSAC, the first practical computer with stored programs. Alan Turing imagined greater things for computers beyond calculations, after seeing the Colossus computer break German codes at Bletchley Park. Actor Derek Jacobi, performing as Alan Turing in “Breaking the Code,” elaborates on Turing’s insights into artificial intelligence. Computers can learn, but will they be intelligent?
Hosted and narrated by Spock (Leonard Nimoy) From Season 2, Episode 23. An inquiry into whether the dramatic weather changes in America's northern states mean that a new ice age is approaching.
Personal Note: You will see interview with a Dr. Gifford Miller from the University of Colorado. who is actually still there and still publishing papers.
His University professional page is here: https://www.colorado.edu/origins/people/gifford-miller
It seems this guy flip flops on global cooling/warming than a politician flip flops on issues.
Water is the new oil. Once a human right, it's now a valuable commodity, and corporations and super-rich oil dynasties are buying up water rights, controlling nations and populations.
Fired Aired: 3 December 2010
Japan's fifth generation computer project and a look at the next phase of PC platforms. Shot in Japan.
Guests: Gary Kildall, Digital Research; Admiral Bobby Ray Inman, MCC; Ed Feigenbaum, Author; Dr. Hideo Aiso, Keio University; Dr. Yukio Mizuno, NEC; Dr. Hiroshi Kashiwagi, NSP; Dr. Kuzuhiro Fuchi, ICOT; Dr. Tohru Moto-Aka, Univ Tokyo
Products/Demos: KIP System, Pattern Matching, Inference Machine, Prologue
The annual guide to holiday buying for technology products. Stewart Cheifet, Tim Bajarin, Chris Gorman and several technology writers offer up their selections for best new tech products of the season. Included are new web cams, PDAs, and desktop video editors.
A consumer's review of the hottest hardware and software goodies for the techie on your holiday shopping list. Originally broadcast in 1985.
A review of available hardware and software gifts for techies.
Products/Demos: Calendar Creator, HP Financial Consultant, Business Simulator, Muppet Learning Keys Toy Shop, Pen Mouse, Looking Your Best, AmnesiaPC, and Type Right. Originally broadcast in 1986. Guests include George Morrow, Paul Schindler, and Wendy Woods. Stewart Cheifet is host.