This week has both been comforting and terrifying. Take comfort in the strong evidence that we are no where near the rise of our robotic overlords when robocop can not even pass on a call for help to the police. The USA is setting records for STDs and it is directly harming children. Australia is also showing how even safety equipment/ clothing can turn dangerous in nature.

These and other stories can be found at:

00:10 RoboCop fails its only job

01:23 Invasive fish species that can breath air is invading Georgian waters and the state is worried

03:59 Japanese researchers find a way to keep mouse brains tissue alive for weeks

07:36 The USA reports a 5th year of record Std rates

10:34 Australian engineer finds another way the country is dangerous when his safety clothing gets so hot from sunlight it causes burns

Relevant links;

The SPCA Has Removed Its Controversial Security Robot

A RoboCop, a park and a fight: How expectations about robots are clashing with reality


Invasive Georgian fish species

Invasive Snakehead Fish Caught in Gwinnett County

Northern Snakehead

Northern Snakehead

Hannibal Lecter (TV)

Northern Snakehead - General Information - Maryland Department of Natural Resources

Wiki: Microfluidi..

Of the bonsai styles that you could try a forest is probably a long ways down the list. It is a group planting that uses trees that are unsuited to use as a single tree display. En masse these trees create a very good fisplay that recreates a ‘forest’.

Creating your own forest is a slightly protracted process. The delays are not caused by wiring, training the trunk shape or developing ramifications. The problem is gettign the right trees and placing them in the right way. Than waiting for the growth to right everything by being natural.

A forest planting is like a saikei or raft. It is made of smalle rless styled trees. These tend to be less well defined, not have trunk taper or follow defined rules. Compared with a informal or formal upright with branches left, right and back or a cascade the forest has no single tree that has been styled.

The trees that you do plant in this pot will often have no branche sont he bottom 1/3. They will be haphazardly planted. They will also be sized differently. Some are taller and others much shorter.

This week people have made a series of dumb decisions. Some have been using non-hospitable grade washing machines in hospitals. Others have been playing chicken with their Tesla. A case study finds that man can get drunk just by eating. Australia finds yet another thing that will try to kill you just as soon as it is touched.

These and others stories can be found at:

00:10 Tesla drivers doing stupid things with version 10

01:10 German hospital blames washing machine for the infection of 10+ infants infected with Klebsiella oxytoca

03:03 Chinese man gets drunk by eating because of GI tract flora; causes liver damage

05:54 Australian fungi fan finds incredibly poisonous fungi (Poison fire coral) that was unknown in Australia until now

07:25 It turns out that the black plague really comes from a small Russian town

09:58 Long term use of heart burn/ reflux medication (proton pump inhibitors) may increase risk of stomach cancer

13:31 losing more than 10% of your body weight may reverse type 2 diabetes

15:35 Texan Alligator Park finds 14’, 1000 lb alligator 2 years after it was misplaced

16:30 Words with friends may have been hacked; exposing millions of users personal data

Relevant links:


Tesla owners are already doing dumb things with ‘Smart Summon’

Will Tesla Smart Summon Stop for a Person? | Enhanced Summon Demo | Version 10 |

The washing machine as a reservoir for transmission of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (CTX-M-15)-producing Klebsiella oxytoca ST201 in newborns

Alcohol-producing gut bacteria could cause liver damage even in people who don't drink

Fatty Liver Disease Caused by High-Alcohol-Pro..

Tea is one the worlds favorite beverages. It is a combination of water and tea leaves. Many culture shave developed their own approach to the preparations and consumption of tea. Some of these have strict rules. One of these rules is whether you should dunk your tea bag or let it steep.

This is both a complex and simple question. Simple in that you decide whether or not to drink your tea as it was prepared. Complex because this is an example of extracting compounds.

Tea has many compounds responsible for its flavor, health benefits and color. These will diffuse out of the tea leaves at different rates, reach different peak concentrations and achieve equilibrium in different amounts. This is true of both brands of tea leaves and even seasonal harvests.

Even than there is variation in the way each is processed. Tea bags are finely cut. Whole leaves for a pot are not. This changes how well everything is extracted and comes out first.

You have very little control over how exactly your tea leaves are harvested, how they are processed or what they consist of. What you can control is what water you use as this effects your tea flavor. This extends to how much water you use and is one reason why tea pots produce a different taste to a tea cup.

Ultimately it is a matter of personal taste and what you are used to.

With the recent week of action on climate change some of the older arguments against the negative aspects of climate change have had the dust brushed off and made presentable. Many of these refreshed arguments rely on misunderstanding science, erroneous studies and blatant lies. The very first of these applies to the theory that rising global CO2 is good for nature.

This is a perfect example of a great story having a grain of truth to make it more palatable. It is a well known fact that plants require CO2 to grow. CO2, water and light make plants grow. More CO2 should lead to more growth according to a logical extension of this of this observable fact.

The problem is that the world, nature and the secret life of plants is far more complicated. So complicated that even trying to isolate and understand the effect CO2 has on growth is hard. Mostly because you can not isolate it and apply your findings to the real world.

Fortunately people with too much time on their hands, 20+ years, have been diligently doing the hard work. They have not only found what makes plants grow better when exposed to CO2 but how long it has an effect. The results are disturbing. After 10 years some plants that previously thrived on CO2 begin to slow down.

There are 2 areas of concern. Agriculture which is responsible for your food. Generally covering farms and grazing regions. The other is wild land such as forests, jungles and the ocean. One is supplemented and fertilized. The other is not. This creates a very stark contrast on what happens to the world as plant growth continues exponentially… or at least until the growth is stopped.

Relevant links:

Ask the Experts: Does Rising CO2 Benefit Plants?

CO2 is making Earth greener—for now

Will rising carbon dioxide levels really boost plant growth?

This week belongs to the any animals and weird case studies. The freaky side of California comes out with a super resilient, hermaphroditic nematode species. Russia secret walrus navy turns rebellious and sinks one of their own boats from the Northern Fleet transporting researchers in the arctic region.

In the vein of case studies a woman is given a broken heart by wasabi and painkillers taken for toothache causes a women to turn blue from hypoxia. Unintended consequences from seemingly harmless actions.

If you want to keep some hope in humanity avoid the following articles on the way Indian turmeric suppliers are adulterating their turmeric supplies with lead, a potent neurotoxin.

Each of these and other articles are described at:

00:11 Hermaphroditic nematode with resistance to arsenic found in California

02:33 Walrus sinks Russian navy’s boat

04:09 Wasabi causes takotsubo cardiomyopathy

05:38 Toothache medicine causes (blue blood) methemoglobinemia

08:47 Clinical trial of transcranial Electromagnetic for Alzheimer treatment shows limited promise

11:34 Indian, Bengalese, turmeric adulterated with lead

14:01 Jewish circumcision ceremony gives infant herpes

16:00 India bans vaping (e-cigarrette) products

16:27 Report from WHO body says the worlds is under prepared for next pandemic

18:39 Australian Capital state legalizes cannabis in a country that nationally considers cannabis use illegal

21:00 Global warming reveals lost Spanish ‘Stonehenge’

22:36 Amazonian trees are growing 50% bigger and we do not know why

Sugar, saccharides, are essential to fermentation. Some sugars like corn syrup defy this rule but on average adding some sort of carbohydrate to your brew will result in some sort of fermentation.

Despite this general rule some sugars simply can not be fermented even if they are made from fermentable sub units like glucose. This is where the effect of an isomer applies.

A simple sugar like glucose is readily fermented by yeast. As part of a larger unit like maltose, 2 glucose units, this is still fermented by yeast. Longer chains are where yeast struggles. This is where starch and cellulose sit.

Starch is made of glucose; cellulose is also made from glucose but only one can be fermented. The reason for this is because each is an isomer and this changes the way each molecule is laid out. In this case cellulose is inaccessible for fermenting species like yeast. Starch however can be fermented.

This is where amylases come in. Amylases are an enzyme group that breaks down starch chains. In this case the 2 parts are called amylose and amylopectin. Amylose is a linear chain of glucose. Amylopectin is like a spiderweb of glucose chains that occasionally branch into new chains.

Each amylase enzyme works on one or the other of these 2 starch chains. This directly effects how much you can ferment when brewing beer. A brew highly dependent on the complex ingredients you add like starch rich barley, wheat and similar.

Drinkling glasses are something you could probably find a specialist store for that has aisles filled with all sorts. They can be tall, short, wide, narrow, shaped, delicate and solid just to name a few variables. This makes choosing the right glass hard.

Based on this you might get lucky and randomly choose the right glass for your beverage. There is a greater chance of choosing the wrong one. This asumes just one beverage. Is it the wine glass on your right or left?

Now adding the various possible beverages to this mix of glassware and you have a very small chance of getting the right glass. The reasons you want to make the right choice, or as close as possible, are many but each glass is designed, developed or specialised to accentuate certain traits of your beverage.

This is why each glass is shaped for each beverage.

This video tries to start you on the path of choosing the right glass. It explains why each is used, what some of the features are and how these effect your drink. This is useful if yopu need to make a choice from bad options and can now choose the least bad option.

This also adresses osme of the historical stories that have become an accepted fact. These facts are not all correct.

One point to mention is the current trend in ‘fashionable’ drinking glasses that are ‘stemless’. In other words a plain drinking glass that is sold at a significant markup but does not achieve its intended purpose or effect. In fact it generally makes drinking your beverage less enjoyable.

Stereochemistry is one of the last things that you need to know about chemical structures for a basic understanding of what makes them what they are and unique. This builds on past videos in the what is sugar series but this installment steps outside of the sugar focus of that series. This video attempts to addresses this last missing piece from the what is sugar series chemistry component.

Stereoisomers are different to constitutional isomers. Rather than be like building blocks of constant size and shape assembled in different ways is an oversimplified description of conformational isomers. Stereoisomers are like changing the flourishes on a model toy. The body and bulk is the same but small details are tweaked.

The degree of change gets more fine tuned as you go further down the stereoismer tree. The subtlety of this is important I pharmacology. The perfect example is thalidomide. One isomer is safe to use. The other is highly toxic causing lifelong birth defects.

To an extent this applies to flavours like lemon and orange which arise from an isomer. Limonene in one form or another produces the 2 flavours.

Relevant links:

Wiki: Stereochemistry

Wiki; Thalidomide

This week is both dull and mundane but at the same time shows how some parts of the world hold terrifying surprises. Australia is entering a season where native birds attack passers by for little to no reason except the birds want to pick a fight overt territory. Russia has sparked outrage on the internet when a facility that houses the small pox virus caught fire. The United States navy has admitted to footage of an UFO or as the call it Unknown Aerial Phenomena.

These and others stories are described at:

00:10 Magpie season begins in Australia

02:10 Sea urchins have terrifying teeth that stay shay sharp like knives

03:11 The 2018 Brazilian attempt to genetically modify mosquitoes has failed in an unexpected way.

05:11 Australian researchers find bodies move a year after death

06:31 Google earth reveals dead mans car and remains 22 years after disappearing

07:28 United States navy admits to UFO footage but not aliens

09:063 Study finds that happy couples argue about particular issues

11:03 Russia tries to destroy the internet with rumors of small pox escaping from a controversial research facility that caught fire.

Good sample size selection is the basis of good research. What sample size you use and how you get there is not a mystery but also not widely understood. This video is trying to answer that question.

Having too few data points for your study means it is under powered. Too many data points is good but also harder to achieve. Balancing these two elements is matter of money time and resources versus efficiency, reliability and repeatability.

Think about this in the context of animal research. Very few people have the desire to kill hundreds of animals to find out about a single, isolated genetic pathway. For this reason you need to have a the smallest number available. In fact it goes beyond an ethical obligation and is something most research is legislated and obliged to do. This last part being enforced by an ethics board.

The same thing applies to the hard work of getting people to complete surveys. Getting enough responses can be hard, very hard. You do not want to collect more responses than necessary.

To do this you use the following formula.

Necessary Sample Size = (Z-score)^2 * StdDev*(1-StdDev) / (margin of error)^2

Your Z score is your alpha/ confidence level.

Standard deviation (StDev) is the variation in your responses and generally assumed to be .5 before you get some data background.

The margin of error is how much error is acceptable in your study/ responses.

This should produce a number.

Relevant links:

Use this table to get your Z score:

Survey monkey:

Sample size formulation

There are many style of bonsai to try. The better known variations of bonsai include informal and formal uprights, cascades and root over rock. One style that is often overlook is that of Saikei. This is also similar but different to the Chinese Penjing,

Saikei are bonsai’s less noticed cousin. This style shares many of the forms, features, processes and equipment as other bonsai styles but does not fit neatly into the same box. It is a landscape made from potting mix, rocks and trees. Some will include props of some kind such as lanterns, bridges and people.

This is because saikei are not a single tree or even a collection of trees. Saikei are like scenes made from natural and living materials. Unlike regular bonsai this shifts the focus away from elements like the branches, leaves and trunk movement and instead encapsulates the whole setting/ image.

This different focus means you have more lee way in creating bonsai as saikei. The rules are more liberally interpreted.

The other side of the coin for bonsai saikei is that you will need more and different material to most regular bonsai. Saikei use more materials to create the initial design like gravel and stones. These may be easily obtained or they may not be. You will likely already have potting mix and a suitable pot/ try for this. Less wire will be needed but more trees.

Once you have these the process of creating the saikei is personal and easily finished by creating a scene that is or will be pleasing to your point of view.

This week has been one of disappointment. Man’s best friend the dog has been struck down by a mystery disease in Norway, an American women buying Mexican anti wrinkle cream gets a trip the emergency room and We still have no definitive source of the mystery vaping disease. We could be in for good news in the future with a possible new polio vaccine formulation and way to use CRISPR in treating HIV. These and other stories are covered at the time stamps below.

00:10 The genetics of left handedness could be down to 3 genes

02:09 Mysterious vaping illness claims 6

02:49 Women poisons self with anti-wrinkle cream containing mercury

05:08 America hit with Eastern Equine Encephalitis for 2019

06:52 Norway racked by mysterious illness that is killing dogs

08:11 New Polio (PV2) oral vaccine on the horizon

12:07 CRISPR used to partially treat patient with HIV giving hope for the future

14:09 Facebook in trouble again over menstruation apps sharing personal data

Relevant links:

Handedness, language areas and neuropsychiatric diseases: insights from brain imaging and genetics

6th Person dies from mysterious vaping illness

Sacramento woman gets mercury poisoning from skin cream from Mexico

Washington Post; Women in coma from Mexican face cream

Assessing Mercury Exposures

Department of Health Confirms This Summer’s First Human Case of Eastern Equine Encephalitis

4th Case of EEE, 1st Case of West Nile Detect..

This week has been unusual. New York finally declares it’s measles outbreak is over, more than a moth after the last case was diagnosed. A 74 year old, Indian women gives birth to twins. There is further news on the mystery vaping disease. These and other stories are covered at:

00:10 Indian women, 74, gives birth to twins

01:29 Rooster and varicose veins cause death of women

02:19 Indian teen diagnosed with Foetus in Foetus

03:15 Health officials my know cause of mystery vaping illness

05:20 The contraceptive pill may be associated with depression

06:56 Extreme male brain hypothesis is questioned with strong experimental design

09:27 New York declared measles outbreak overcome

10:57 Trump oversight; reveals secret spy satellite capabilities

13:32 True North will be true north in Greenwich for the next few weeks

14:41 Deep fake Chinese app taking social media by storm

16:15 Hybrid tumbleweed taking over part of California

Relevant links:

Indian woman, 73, gives birth to twin girls

Andhra woman, 74, gives birth to twins

Oocyte or embryo donation to women of advanced reproductive age: an Ethics Committee opinion

Washington Post; Indian women gives birth to twins

Fatal rooster attack

Fetus in fetus in an adult woman

Possible to solution source of mystery vaping illness

Hollywood often gets genetics wrong and one example is the bizzare idea that species can evolve under drastically different cirtcumstances and this creates 3 helices. This has been true from Species. The concept has crept into video games with Assassin’s Creed Isu having a third DAN strand. This was said to make the species more capable. The question is one of practicalities.

DNA as a rule is made of 4 nucleotides, guanine, cytosine, thymine and adenine. These are able to produce all of the effects seen from DNA alone. This effec tis facilitated by opening and closing the DNA double helix. A complex process this has 7 components just to unwind the helix.

Imagine how many it might be required to open and maintain a tri helcial structure.

There are other issues too. The most fundamental is what would be gained by adding another strand. A large investment of time and energy that has no obvious adavantage and many risks.

Relevant links:

Wiki: Triple-stranded DNA

DNA Triple Helices: biological consequences and therapeutic potential

Do DNA Triple Helices or Quadruplexes Have a Role in Transcription?

Stable Triple-Stranded DNA Formation and its Application to the SNP Detection

Replication fork components

This week has been very rough on pharmaceutical companies with one screwing up their drug manufacturing and another found guilty of producing their legal allowed product. While Big Pharma is on the back foot a New Zealand teen is taking Measles to Disneyland. Unfortunately mandating vaccines may not resolve this with 1 study finding it polarizes the public.

These and other stories are described at the time stamps below.

00:10 Elon Musk says AI is to humans what humans are to chimps

00:50 Star Hopper passes final hurdle by flying 150 meters

02:18 ISS gets upgrade to 600 megabit/second connection

03:27 Mysterious X-37B marks record time in space

04:31 Spanish infants hit by mysterious werewolf like illness

06:40 Sniffing toad secretion might lead to the next generation of antidepressants

08:30 Texas lining up for a measles outbreak very soon

10:50 Mandatory vaccines work for those who cooperate but further ostracize those who do not

13:01 Teen could have been potential plague rat by traveling to Disneyland while sick with measles

15:20 Rare and unusual birth of twins 11 weeks apart

17:02 Researchers associate caesareans and neurodevelopmental disorders, focus on autism

18:59 Going gluten free is probably of no benefit if you do not have coeliacs or similar diagnosed conditions

21:52 Johnson & Johnson found guilty of fueling Oklahoma’s opioid crisis

25:27 Tattoos leave more than ink; study finds metals in lymph nodes

26:53 Australia’s Great Barrier Reef may get a reprieve when a giant, floating pumice mass finds it way therefore

This week is slightly delayed due to technical issues. Fortunately it mostly consists of dumb ideas being executed, bizarre statistical anomalies and answers to questions no one wants to ask. These and other topics are discussed at:

00:11 Vaping may be more dangerous than thought

02:27 Vaping associated with death in Illinois

03:00 Polish village with no female babies in 10 years

04:52 Why washing your chicken is bad

06:50 Doctor to patient “Ma’am there is something other than water in your ear

07:40 Why is cannibalism frowned upon?

10:11 Could Archaea be the bridge between prokaryrotes and eukaryotes?

13:58 YouTube’s algorithm flags robot battles as animal cruelty; could it be self aware?

15:21 India’s Luna lander nears completion of its mission

15:528 Flat earther “Mad Mike” prepares to launch himself in a home made rocket, again

18:45 CRISPR V2 or how CRISPR is being improved

Relevant links:

New Report One of the Most Comprehensive Studies on Health Effects of E-Cigarettes; Finds That Using E-Cigarettes May Lead Youth to Start Smoking, Adults to Stop Smoking

FDA to impose more restrictions e-cigarrettes

Unexplained Vaping-associated Pulmonary Illness

100 e-ciggarrette illnesses

Illinois Resident Experiencing Respiratory Illness After Vaping Dies

1st death from vaping

This week pseudoscience and woo further highlights the problems in using alternative therapies when a women received 2nd degree burns from vaginal steaming. The FDA has stated the obvious by telling people that drinking bleach is a bad idea. Facebook admits it has been recording your conversations.

In less depressing news. The FDA has approved anew Tuberculosis drug. There may be a chlamydia vaccine in the near future. Breast cancer cells were turned into fat cells.

These and more stories are described at the time stamps below:

00:10 Autism may be closely associated to foetal oestrogen

01:48 Peer review identifies flawed research into HPV vaccine and declining birth rate research

05:57 FDA to Public ‘ don’t drink bleach ‘.

09:34 Women gets 2nd degree burns from new fad steaming of vagina

11:15 Mans penis is turning into a bone.

12:02 Chlamydia vaccine passes first hurdle

14:00 Japanese researchers find a way to predict sperm sex with greater than 80% accuracy

15:44 FDA approves new and third Tuberculosis drug

17:22 There may be a way to turn breast cancer cells into fat cells

19:16 Chemists make stable, isolated carbon ring

21:09 Facebook admits to listening to your conversations

As past videos seem to have failed to convey this point. You do not cut the roots of a bonsai tree to stunt growth. This is the complete opposite of what you are trying to get of out pruning the roots.

That is the simple answer as to why you prune roots from bonsai.

The longer, more detailed answer is that you are doing to bottom of the tree what is done to the top. Removing unwanted growth, re-balancing the flow of nutrients and giving the tree access to more nutrition and water.

This is done by :

Improving the nebari which is the connection between trunk and roots.

Removing the tap root of trees.

Removing most of the substantial roots that would normally fix a tree in place.

Increasing the fine feeder roots.

This makes the tree healthier, grow better and makes it possible to keep it in the pot for longer before needing to be re-potted. This means more growth not less. All the signs of a healthy tree.

Keeping a bonsai has a small learning curve. One of the earliest mistakes that happen is to bring the bonsai inside and treat it like a plastic plant. Unfortunately for most people who do not realize it bonsai are not suited that.

This is not to say that every tree must be kept outside but as a rule you are better off doing that.

If due to local weather conditions, lack of space or other circumstances unique to you some trees can be kept inside.

Species suitable to being kept indoors:

Crasula ovata (otherwise known as a money tree, jade tree or jade plant)

Fig trees (Ficus benjamina, Ficus nerofolia)

Ulmus parvifolia (Chinese elm)

Serissa japonica (Snow rose)

Once you have chosen a tree that is suitable you need to place it some where with lots of natural light but not so close to the window as to be damaged by the cold or heat. This assumes that you do not want to use an artificial light source.

A tree kept inside can not be watered as frequently as one kept outside. Doing so leads to stagnant water which causes disease. This also reduces the need for fertilizer as less water is lost to water flowing through the pot.

Temperature is another concern. The more comfortable you find where you keep the tree the healthier it will be.

This should keep your tree healthy.

This week is full of examples of what not to do with animals. The is a strong, viable lead for a blood test for Coeliacs disease. On the other side some crazy scientists have decided to brew vodka using grain fro Chernobyls exclusion zone. These and other topics are covered at:

00:11 First synthetic cells that respond to environment

02:21 Atomic vodka

04:02 Blood test for Coelics

06:14 Neil Degrasse Tyson dun’ goofed

09:33 Fisherwoman gets bitten by her dinner octopus

11:24 Man’s best friend leads to amputation

13:10 Man made extraterrestrials live; Tardigrades from the Beresheet lunar lander may yet be alive

14:34 Facebook pulls the Area 51 raid.

15:25 Area 51 raid ban is deemed a ‘mistake’ by Facebook

Relevant links:

Building a synthetic mechanosensitive signaling pathway in compartmentalized artificial cells

Chernobyl vodka

WashingtonPost: Atomic Vodka

Cytokine release and gastrointestinal symptoms after gluten challenge in celiac disease

Neil Degrasse Tyson Tweet

Tyson apology

Preventable deaths due to problems in care in English acute hospitals: a retrospective case record review study.

Preventable deaths due to problems in care in English acute hospitals: a retrospective case record review study

Are medical errors really t..

Supplements are a common item to find in pharmacies, health food shops and even grocery stores. These are often just simple multi vitamins, culturally used plant extracts and even fairy tales that have been believed.

This lack of harm in the past has meant that very little enforcement has been done to keep the market honest. This has led to an explosion of producers of dubious quality and ethics. The opioid supplements in question are an example of this.

There are 2 particular examples.

The first is a medicine used in other countries (but not approved in the USA) that has found its way into American supplements. That is right the supplements are being spiked (read contaminated) with a real medicine. This has led other supplements to be pulled from the market in the past. In this case it is worse. The drug in question is the equivalent of an opioid and acts just like it. A highly addictive, easily abused and strictly controlled medication.

The second is slightly different. It is a opioid like supplement heavily advertised as a replacement for opioids that are prescribed. It is variable in quality and concentration. For this reason it can lead to some serious side effects with the worst being death. Another example of highly addictive, easily abused and strictly controlled medication.

This poor market regulation and ability to sell many products of uncertain providence has led to the FDA stepping into begin clearing the trash. They have begun by noting and limiting the availability of obviously and immediately harmful supplements like the two mentioned in this video.

Over the last 12 months the FDA has been handing out notices to supplement companies like Oprah Winfrey on a gift spree.

Relevant links:

FDA warns marketers of products labeled as dietary supplements that contain tianeptine for making unproven claims to treat serious conditions, including opioid use disorder

The development of novel medicine is a long and very expensive process. A single drug can take up to 15 years to be available in pharmacies. These 15 years cost a pharmaceutical company up to $2.6 billion for each success. Each of these successes are the single success in a pile of failures. This large time delay, huge cost and cost to resources, staff and facilities makes it necessary to charge a disproportionate cost. This cost is both protected and facilitated by patent law.

It is a complex picture and many people often struggle with individual elements. Most do not grasp the bigger picture of all the components and how they interact. Cracked makes a perfect example of this in a 2016 YouTube video called “If Drug Companies Were Honest - Honest Ads”. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rbFYsYMA3No)

The problem of drug development, the costs of drugs to the public and the incorrect perception can be summarized in these 4 points:

- Only the wealthy can afford medicine.

- Drug patents are the be all and end all of medication.
(Patent law; https://youtu.be/7-lNLq2v-Aw)

- That drug companies do not develop medication in house.
(Bioprospecting ; https://youtu.be/p8lNVYGkd9M)

- Drug patents are a profitable area of business.
( Clinical trials ; https://youtu.be/EOF6crgBsfU)

(Animal research models ; https://youtu.be/cm4RxJMhsTU)

These 4 topic areas have been addressed in part before.

Factors that further influence the cost are simple market share economics. The value of drug A to pharmaceutical company 1 is going to drop after the patent expires. When company 2 sells a generic version of drug A they get to make massive profits by comparison. Company 2 can do this because their shareholders have a far lower expectation from their dividends. This combines both the issues of retail economics (the lowest price product tends to sell best) and the the obligations of companies to their share holders.

This is compounded by the declining number of drugs being bro..

This week has some truyly bizzare case studies with migrating implants and children with 100s of teeth. In other news Florida has another concern with mosquitos carrying eastern equine encephalitis. Finally a pair of chinese teens try a video challenge and end up in the ICU. Japan has approved human aniumal organ hybridisation that may improve the transplant organ shortage. The details of each can be found at:

00:10 Lightsail 2

03:01 Insect swarm mistakeable for rain clouds

04:03 Zombie Kauri pine tree in New Zealand

05:10 Mosquitos in Florida found to carry Eastern equine encephalitis

05:56 Body donors remains used for explosive testing against wishes

08:15 Contraceptive implant migrates to womens lung

09:49 7 year old Indian boiy with 500+ teeth in ondontoma

11:27 2 Chinese girls find them sleves in ICU after 1000 squat challenge

13:43 Full term human-animal hybrid embryos approved in Japan for future hybrid organ transplant research.

16:01 LUKE arm can move and feel

Relevant links:

LightSail 2 Spacecraft Successfully Demonstrates Flight by Light

Met office tweet

Flying ants: Swarms appear on weather map as 'rain'

Hydraulic Coupling of a Leafless Kauri Tree Remnant to Conspecific Hosts



Some Mosquitos Are Spreading A Rare, Brain-Infecting Virus

Sugars are complex. In fact there are whole fields of research into sugars. For most people this is not important but dieticians, brewers and pharmaceutical scientists will find it has varying degrees of relevance.

For the brewer it is a matter of finding a sugar that does what they want. Will it become alcohol? Add body and mouthfeel? Is it a way to modify taste? Can you make a ‘light’ beer? Do you want a certain colour after fermentation? All of these can be addressed through different avenues. The easiest of these solutions is to choose a suitable sugar.

This video looks at how you can add a sugar and what that sugar needs to be if it will be turned into alcohol. These sugars are called reducing sugars. They will work in the anaerobic respiration cycle that most people know as fermentation leading to alcohol production.

The reducing sugar name is a short hand way of referring to the change in shape from a ring to a linear (straight line). Rings can not be metabolized. Think of it as comparable to trying to et a whole apple in one bite. The linear form is like slicing the apple into small segments that can be easily consumed.

Not all sugars are reducing sugars and must fit certain criteria. This includes having certain functional groups, not having others and being able to be isolated into a mono saccharide.

Most di and poly saccharides do not fit into this category but the constituent parts may when separated.

In medical terms the reducing sugars were an important means of testing for diabetes before more convenient packs, kits and preparations were developed.

Relevant links;

Master Organic Chemistry :Carbohydrates

Organic Molecule Review

Fehlings Test on YouTube

Wiki: Tollen’s Reagent


Created 1 year, 4 months ago.

139 videos


A channel for education, home brewing, science and bonsai with a little bit of satire thrown in for fun.
Twitter; @Igor_Frnknstein
Minds: https://www.minds.com/register?referrer=igorandfrankenstein
Flickr: https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]
GAB: @igorandfrankenstein