The Federation of Roldania

Perlis is the smallest state in Malaysia by area and population. Located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, she borders the Thai provinces of Satun and Songkhla to the north and the state of Kedah to the south. She was called Palit by the Siamese when she was under their influence.

Her anthem, “Amin, Amin, ya Rabaljalil” (Amen, Amen, o Majestic Lord), was adopted in 1935. The lyrics are written in an admixture of Malay and Arabic.

When the Iraqi monarchy was overthrown in 1958, an Iraqi music student studying in Vienna, Lewis Zanbaka, hurriedly composed a national anthem and relayed it to the republican government through the Iraq embassy in Vienna. “My Country”, like the “Royal Salute” before it has no words and is also in the “Arab fanfare” style of anthem (although it is usually monarchies and emirates that tend to adopt this style of anthem).

Immediately after the fall of the Saddam Hussein government in 2003, “My Country” was used again for a brief time as an interim anthem until a new one was adopted. (The title of this anthem is identical to the title of the anthem that replaced it in 2004).

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Since Amilcar Lopes Cabral’s Portuguese Guinea included Cape Verde, “Esta é a Nossa Pátria Bem Amada” was adopted by her when her independence was achieved in 1975. Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde even proposed to merge, but this merger dissolved before it was realized, and a few years later, Cape Verde subsequently adopted her own anthem.

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“Bajtárs” (“Comrades”) is a Hungarian patriotic song.

Originally a march for the Elite Székely Division, it was created by Mihály Erdélyi, a well-known Hungarian composer.

“Siammanusti” (สยามานุสสติ) was originally a poem written by Mongkut (King Rama IV) on April 27, 1918. It is based on the Rudyard Kipling WW1 quote “What stands if Freedom fall? Who dies if England live?”

The poem was later set to music by Nart Thavornbut for the 1939 film “Bang Ra Chan”.

It remains a popular patriotic song in Thailand to this day.

“God Save the King” (or “God Save the Queen”, depending on the gender of the ruling monarch) was first publicly performed in London in 1745 to support King George II after he was defeated in a battle in the Jacobean uprising that started that year. The song was used to boost morale and the forces loyal to George II would go on to defeat the Jacobites the following year. The song came to be referred to as the national anthem from the beginning of the nineteenth century.

The words and tune are anonymous, and may date back to the seventeenth century. There are various claimants to authorship of both the words and tune, the words can be found as early as 1545, when the watchword at night was “God save the King”, the reply was “Long to reign over us.” The authorship of the melody has been claimed by many, including John Bull (the author of the earliest piece of music that resembles the work), Henry Carey, Henry Purcell, and Joseph Haydn (although he probably borrowed the tune upon hearing it in London.)

There is no authorized version of the National Anthem as the words are a matter of tradition. The anthem has also never been officially declared as the national anthem of the country, the royal anthem (as this technically is) is used as the national anthem as a matter of tradition, but this is also due to the unique constitutional situation in the United Kingdom, as the nation doesn’t have a formal constitution. The words used are the same as those sung in 1745; during the periods of a Queen (1837-1901 and 1952-2022), substituting ‘Queen’ for ‘King’ (and female pronouns with male ones) where appropriate. On official (and most other) occasions, the first verse only is sung, on a small number of occasions, the third verse is heard as well; very rarely is the second verse heard due to its militaristic nature. There exist many other verses, some dating as far back as the first three verses, but the first three are what can best be represented as the “standard” British national anthem.

The British tune has since become one of the world’s most recognizable anthems, and has been used in other countries – as European visitors to Britain in the eighteenth century noticed the advantage of a country possessing such a recognized musical symbol – including Germany, Russia, Switzerland, the United States (where use of the tune continued after independence as the patriotic song “My Country, ‘Tis of Thee” and one of several unofficial anthems before 1931), and even today by Liechtenstein and as the royal anthem of Norway. The song also was an influence on early anthems used in the Kingdom of Hawaii. (One might say that because of this fact, that the United Kingdom was the creator of the concept of a “national anthem”.) Some 140 composers, including Beethoven, Haydn and Brahms, have used the tune in their compositions.

“God Save the King” also serves as the royal anthem for most Commonwealth countries, such as Australia and Canada. (Governors-general of Commonwealth countries usually have bits and pieces of the national anthem strung together played as their anthem.)

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“There'll Always Be an England” is an English patriotic song, written and distributed in the summer of 1939, which became highly popular following the outbreak of the Second World War. It was composed and written by Ross Parker and Hughie Charles. A popular version was sung by singer Vera Lynn.

In its lyrics, the song invokes various clichés of English rural life, liberty, and Imperial power.

One of those songs popular with the Ulster Loyalists.

“Men of Harlech” (Welsh: Rhyfelgyrch Gwŷr Harlech, “March of the Men of Harlech”) is a song and military march which is traditionally said to describe events during the seven-year siege of Harlech Castle between 1461 and 1468, when the castle was held by the Lancastrians against the Yorkists as part of the Wars of the Roses. Commanded by Constable Dafydd ap Ieuan, the garrison withstood the longest known siege in the history of the British Isles. The song has also been associated with the earlier, briefer siege of Harlech Castle about 1408, which pitted the forces of Owain Glyndŵr against the future Henry V of England.

The music was first published without words during 1794 as “Gorhoffedd Gwŷr Harlech—March of the Men of Harlech” in the second edition of “The Musical and Poetical Relicks of the Welsh Bards”, but it is said to be a much earlier folk song. The earliest version of the tune to appear with lyrics, found thus far, comes from a broadside printed c. 1830. Since then, many different versions of the English lyrics have been published. It was published first with Welsh lyrics in “Gems of Welsh Melody”, edited by the Welsh poet, John Owen (Owain Alaw), published in London, England and Wrexham, Wales, during 1860. An edition containing Welsh and English lyrics was published in Ruthin, Wales, during 1862. The song was published in Volume II of the 1862 collection “Welsh Melodies” with the Welsh lyrics by the Welsh poet John Jones (Talhaiarn) and the English lyrics by Thomas Oliphant, President of the Madrigal Society. Another source attributes the Welsh words to the poet John Ceiriog Hughes, first published during 1890, and says that English words were first published during 1893, but this is clearly predated by the earlier publications.

“Men of Harlech” is widely used as a regimental march, especially by British Army and Commonwealth regiments historically associated with Wales. Notably, it is the slow march of the Welsh Guards, the quick march of the Royal Welsh, and the march of the Royal Canadian Hussars (Montreal), The Governor General’s Horse Guards, and The Ontario Regiment, for which it is the slow march.

The song is important for Welsh national culture. The song gained international recognition when it was featured in the 1941 movie “How Green Was My Valley” and the 1964 film “Zulu”.

“Scotland the Brave” is a Scottish patriotic song, one of three often considered an unofficial Scottish national anthem (the others being “Flower of Scotland” and “Scots Wha Hae”).

The tune was first played probably in the late 19th century. The lyrics commonly used now were written about 1950 by Scottish journalist Clifford Leonard Clark “Cliff” Hanley for singer Robert Wilson as part of an arrangement by Marion McClurg. Another set of lyrics also often heard were sung by Canadian singer John Charles McDermott; they are closely based on the poem “Let Italy Boast” by James Hyslop, which was first published in 1821 in The Edinburgh Magazine. However, Hyslop intended his poem to be sung to the melody of Sir Walter Scott of Abbotsford, 1st Baronet’s “Boat Song” from “The Lady of the Lake” and not “Scotland the Brave”.

“Scotland the Brave” is also the authorized pipe band march of the British Columbia Dragoons of the Canadian Armed Forces.

“Scotland the Brave” was played before matches involving the Scotland national football team at the 1982, 1986, and 1990 FIFA World Cups. “Flower of Scotland” was subsequently adopted by Scotland for use at FIFA-sponsored events, after its usage by the Scottish rugby union team. The song was also used to represent Scotland in the Commonwealth Games until it was replaced by “Flower” from the 2010 games onwards.

In June 2006, the song rated second in an online poll with more than 10,000 votes to determine Scotland’s favorite unofficial anthem, losing only to “Flower”.

“Heart of Oak” is the official march of the Royal Navy. It is also the official march of several Commonwealth navies, including the Royal Canadian Navy and the Royal New Zealand Navy. It was also the official march of the Royal Australian Navy, but has now been replaced by the new march, “Royal Australian Navy”.

The music of “Heart of Oak” was written in 1759 by composer William Boyce, the lyrics by actor David Garrick, for Garrick’s pantomime Harlequin’s Invasion, to which others contributed as well. The pantomime was first performed on New Year’s Eve of that year at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, London, with Handel soloist Samuel Thomas Champnes singing “Heart of Oak”.

The “wonderful year” referenced in the first verse was the Annus Mirabilis of 1759, during which British forces were victorious in several significant battles: the Battle of Minden on August 1,1759; the Battle of Lagos on August 19, 1759; the Battle of the Plains of Abraham (outside Quebec City) on September 13, 1759; and the Battle of Quiberon Bay on November 20, 1759. The last battle foiled a French invasion project planned by the Duc de Choiseul to defeat Britain during the Seven Years’ War, hence the reference in the song to “flat-bottom” invasion barges. These victories were followed a few months later by the Battle of Wandiwash in India on January 22, 1760. Britain’s continued success in the war boosted the song’s popularity.

The oak in the song's title refers to the wood from which British warships were generally made during the age of sail. The “Heart of Oak” is the strongest central wood of the tree. The reference to “freemen not slaves” echoes the refrain (“Britons never will be slaves!”) of “Rule, Britannia!”, written and composed two decades earlier.

The exact origins of the tune are disputed but generally date to the early 17th century. It appears in John Playford’s 1728 collection of dance tunes as “The New Bath”, while Victorian musicologist William Chappell also suggested links to a 1622 work called “Sir Edward Nowell’s Delight”. The debate is best summarized by the composer Ernest Walker in 1907 who described the melody as “three centuries’ evolution of an Elizabethan tune”.

The melody was introduced into Britain as a military march during the 1689–1702 reign of William III and has similarities with one written for Prince John William of Friesland (1687–1711). Henry Grattan Flood suggested as another candidate the 1672 Dutch march “Wilhelmus van Nassouwe”, which in turn was a reworking of a French version from 1568.

“The British Grenadiers” refers to grenadiers in general, not the Grenadier Guards Regiment, and all Fusilier units were entitled to use it. It allegedly commemorates an assault in August 1695 by 700 British grenadiers on the French-held fortress of Namur during the Nine Years War. A tune known as “The Granadeer’s March” was mentioned in a London publication in 1706, although it is not clear that it was the same melody known today. Francis Grose in his 1786 work “Military Antiquities” quoted two lines of the lyrics (“Come let us fill a bumper, and drink a health to those,/Who wear the caps and pouches, and eke the looped clothes”) as part of a “grenadier song” he already considered to be “old”.

It was a popular tune in both Britain and North America throughout the 18th and 19th centuries and remains so. It is most commonly heard today in the annual Trooping the Colour ceremony when the Colour Escort marches into position on Horse Guards Parade.

Like “Rule, Britannia!”, the song is frequently used in film and television to introduce a British setting or character, or indicate stereotypical Britishness.

The official anthem of England, being a country within the United Kingdom, is that of the United Kingdom, namely “God Save the King”. All the countries of the United Kingdom, however, have unofficial local anthems of varying degrees of popularity and official-ness; England’s anthem in this regard is harder to determine.

National anthems of the countries of the United Kingdom are often determined by what is played at sporting events, especially those where play against other British countries are concerned. In some, “God Save the King” is used for England, even in play against other areas of the United Kingdom where their respective local anthems are used, in a few others another patriotic song might be used (such as “Jerusalem”) or “Land of Hope and Glory”, which is used by many sporting teams representing England or local teams within England. Because it is often associated with English sporting teams, “Land of Hope and Glory” often is a popular choice for consideration of an English anthem.

Taken from Elgar’s “Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1 in D”, this patriotic song may be familiar to N. American audiences as being played at convocation ceremonies. The song was first performed in 1902 and, at the request of the new king of the United Kingdom, King Edward VII, words were written for the occasion of his coronation the following year.

One must keep in mind that no anthem has been decreed by law as the official national anthem of England (even “God Save the King” is used traditionally as the national anthem of the United Kingdom, having not been officially declared as such); and “God Save the King” seems to remain the most popular anthem within England. “Land of Hope and Glory” is only used, as mentioned above in some (but, importantly, not all) sporting events as well as several national anthems collections that represent a separate anthem for England.

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“I Vow to Thee, My Country” is a British patriotic hymn, created in 1921, when music by Gustav Holst had a poem by Sir Cecil Spring Rice set to it. The music originated as a wordless melody, which Holst later named “Thaxted”, taken from the “Jupiter” movement of Holst's 1917 suite “The Planets”.

The origin of the hymn’s text is a poem by diplomat Sir Cecil Spring Rice, written in 1908 or 1912, entitled “Urbs Dei” ("The City of God”) or “The Two Fatherlands”. The poem described how a Christian owes his loyalties to both his homeland and the heavenly kingdom.

In 1908, Spring Rice was posted to the British Embassy in Stockholm. In 1912, he was appointed as Ambassador to the United States of America, where he influenced the administration of Woodrow Wilson to abandon neutrality and join Britain in the war against Germany. After the United States entered the war, he was recalled to Britain. Shortly before his departure from the US in January 1918, he rewrote and renamed “Urbs Dei”, significantly altering the first verse to concentrate on the themes of love and sacrifice rather than “the noise of battle" and “the thunder of her guns”, creating a more somber tone in view of the dreadful loss of life suffered in the Great War. The first verse in both versions invoke Britain (in the 1912 version, anthropomorphized as Britannia with sword and shield; in the second version, simply called “my country”); the second verse, the Kingdom of Heaven.

According to Sir Cecil’s granddaughter, the rewritten verse of 1918 was never intended to appear alongside the first verse of the original poem but was replacing it; the original first verse is nevertheless sometimes known as the “rarely sung middle verse”. The text of the original poem was sent by Spring Rice to William Jennings Bryan in a letter shortly before his death in February 1918.

The poem circulated privately for a few years until it was set to music by Holst, to a tune he adapted from his “Jupiter” to fit the words of the poem. It was performed as a unison song with orchestra in the early 1920s, and it was finally published as a hymn in 1925/6 in the “Songs of Praise” hymnal (no. 188).

“I Vow to Thee, My Country” was voted as the UK’s sixth favorite hymn in a 2019 poll by the religious show “Songs of Praise”.

“Rule, Britannia!” is a British patriotic song, originating from the 1740 poem of the same name by James Thomson and set to music by Thomas Arne in the same year. It is most strongly associated with the Royal Navy, but is also used by the British Army.

The song was originally the final musical number in Thomas Arne’s Alfred, a masque about Alfred the Great, co-written by James Thomson and David Mallet and first performed at Cliveden, the country home of Frederick, Prince of Wales, on August 1, 1740.

“Rule, Britannia!” soon developed an independent life of its own, separate from the masque of which it had formed a part. First heard in London in 1745, it achieved instant popularity. It quickly became so well known that Handel quoted it in his Occasional Oratorio in the following year. Handel used the first phrase as part of the Act II soprano aria, “Prophetic visions strike my eye”, when the soprano sings it at the words “War shall cease, welcome peace!”

The song assumed extra significance in 1945 at the conclusion of World War II when it was played at the ceremonial surrender of the Imperial Japanese Army in Singapore. A massed military band of Australian, British and American forces played as Supreme Allied Commander Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma arrived.

“Rule, Britannia!” (in an orchestral arrangement by Sir Malcolm Sargent) is traditionally performed at the BBC’s Last Night of the Proms, normally with a guest soloist (past performers have included Jane Eaglen, Bryn Terfel, Thomas Hampson, Joseph Calleja, and Felicity Lott). It has always been the last part of Sir Henry Wood's 1905 Fantasia on British Sea Songs, except that for many years up until 2000, the Sargent arrangement has been used. However, in recent years the inclusion of the song and other patriotic tunes has been much criticized—notably by Leonard Slatkin—and the presentation has been occasionally amended. For some years the performance at the Last Night of the Proms reverted to Sir Henry Wood’s original arrangement. When Bryn Terfel performed it at the Proms in 1994 and 2008 he sang the third verse in Welsh.

Elizabeth II was a noble monarch who saw Britain undergo a LOT of things during her long and prosperous reign. May she rest in peace. 🇬🇧

“‛My Fatherland’ is the song written and composed by former South Korean President Park Chung-hee. It is characterized by the trot monotone scale that originated from the Japanese Enka of the past, and there are some points that fit with the individual’s identity of Park Chung-hee.”

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“Tongjiaeŭi Norae” (동지애의 노래, “The Song of Comradeship”) is a North Korean song made for the 1980 (Juche 69) film “The Star of Korea” (조선의 별). It was written by Ri Jong Sun and composed by Sŏng Dong Ch'un.

It has since become one of North Korea’s propaganda masterpieces.

“Tentera Singapura” (The Singaporean Army) is the official quick march of the Singapore Armed Forces. It is composed by A. Abdullah Sumardi.

“Ahlef Bismaha” (أحلف بسماها, “I Swear by Her Sky”) is an Egyptian patriotic song created in 1967 and first performed by Abdel Halim Hafez. It tells of how the sun will always shine in the Egyptian motherland (and the Arab world in general), no matter the circumstance.

“Maanta” (Today) is a popular Somali patriotic song. Its artist is Xaliimo Khaliif “Magool” Cumar (born Halima Khaliif Omar).

After the fall of the Third Republic and the occupation of northern France by Germany, the Marseillaise remained the official anthem of both the Vichy government (the Nazi puppet state set up in unoccupied southern France) and the Free France forces, who were against the Vichy government and sought its removal. Both factions also had unofficial anthems in popular use as well, the Vichy government used a song dating from 1847 entitled “Maréchal, nous voilà!” (written and composed by André Montagard and co-composer Charles Courtious), and the Free French “Le Chant des Partisans” composed by Anna Marly (music) and French words by Maurice Druon and Joseph Kessel, customarily sung as the anthem.

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“La Parata d’eroi” (The Parade of Heroes) is an Italian military march composed by Francesco Pellegrino.

Composed in 1940 under the name “Parata legionaria” (Parade of Legionnaires), it took its current name after World War II. It is one of Italy’s most famous military marches.

“Mukashi no mukashi” (むかしのむかし, “Once upon a time”) is a Dosanko (a demonym for Hokkaido) song with lyrics by Ryuichi Hirose and music by Yoshinao Nakada. The song was established as a “light and cheerful song that can be sung happily at any time”.

As the “Home Song of Hokkaido”, it is one of the 3 “Songs of the People of Hokkaido Prefecture”, along with the prefecture march “Hikari Afurete” and the Dōmin ondo “Hokkai bayashi”.

“Wǒ Ài Zhōnghuá” (我愛中華, “I Love China”) is a Taiwanese military song. The lyrics were written by Lín Jūnzhǎng, while the music was composed by Chéng Jièzhōng.

The last two lines of the lyrics during the RoC Mobilization Period, “We will destroy the communists and revive the Republic of China”, were changed during the Chén Shuǐbiǎn administration to “We will solemnly strengthen ourselves and we will revive China”.

The song became the basis for the Wa State patriotic song/probable anthem “Wǒ Ài Wǎ Bāng” (I Love Wa State).


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