The Federation of Roldania

Tokyo (officially the Tokyo Metropolis) is the de facto capital (No Japanese law has designated Tokyo as the Japanese capital.) and most populous prefecture of Japan. Located at the head of Tokyo Bay, the prefecture forms part of the Kantō region on the central Pacific coast of Japan's main island of Honshu. She is the political and economic center of the country, the seat of the Emperor of Japan and the national government, and part of the Greater Tokyo Area, the most populous metropolitan area in the world.

Her “metropolitan anthem”, “Tōkyō-to Ka” (東京都歌, “Metropolitan Anthem of Tokyo”), was adopted in 1947. The lyrics are by Shigehisa Harada (with assistance from Sumako Fukao), and the music composed by Hiroshi Kasaya.

Moscow is the capital and largest city of Russia. She is among the world's largest cities, being the largest city entirely in Europe, the largest urban area in Europe, the largest metropolitan area in Europe, and the largest city by land area on the European continent.

Her municipal anthem, “Moja Moskva” (Моя Москва, “My Moscow”), was composed in 1941 by Isaak Dunayevsky and the lyrics were written by Sergey Agranyan and Mark Lisyansky. The original lyrics had four verses, of which the last pertained to Joseph Stalin. They were replaced by the current lyrics which were introduced during the Leonid Brezhnev era. It was officially adopted as such in 1995, with slight alterations.

Washington, D.C. (formally the District of Columbia and also known as D.C. or just Washington) is the capital city of the United States. As the seat of the US federal government and several international organizations, she is an important world political capital.

Her official state song, “Washington”, was written and composed in 1951 by Jimm Dodd, who was a struggling Hollywood actor, singer, and composer at the time (He would be later be known as the first head “Mouseketeer” on the first television version of Disney’s “Mickey Mouse Club”.). It was the winning entry in a local contest to seek a state song, but it wasn’t that popular to the public.
It was adopted as such in 1961, along with the state march “Our Nation’s Capital”.

Official name / Nom officiel / Offizieller Name / 正式名称 - XVI Summer Paralympic Games / XVIes Jeux paralympiques d’été / XVI. Sommer-Paralympics / 第16回パラリンピック競技大会
Host city / Ville hôte / Gastgeberstadt / 開催都市 - Tokyo, Japan / Tokyo, Japon / 日本 東京都
Duration / Durée / Dauer / 間隔 - August 24 - September 5, 2021 / 24 août - 5 septembre 2021 / 24. August - 5. September 2021 / 2021年8月24日-9月5日
Team count / Nombre d'équipes / Teamanzahl / チーム数 - 162 (including the Refugee Paralympic Team and the Russian Paralympic Committee / y compris l'équipe paralympique des réfugiés et le Comité paralympique russe / sowie Paralympischen Flüchtlingsteam und Russischen Paralympischen Komitee / 難民パラリンピックチームとロシアパラリンピック委員会を含む)
Number of athletes / Nombre d'athlètes / Anzahl der Athleten / アスリートの数 - 4,403
Events / Événements / Veranstaltungen / イベント - 539 (in 22 sports / dans 22 sports / in 22 Sportarten / 22のスポーツ中)
Main stadium / Stade principal / Hauptstadion / メインスタジアム - Japan National Stadium / Stade national / Nationalstadion / 国立競技場

Performed by the “Para-Ensemble”.

Interprété par le “Para-Ensemble”.

Aufgeführt vom “Para-Ensemble”.


On this day, August 30, 2021, the former IOC president, Jacques Rogge, has died.

Mr Rogge had lived a valorant and honourable life. He was a brilliant man who contributed greatly to the Games, and he will be dearly missed.

Merci et au revoir, Monsieur Rogge. May you rest in peace.

The Paralympic Games (an international sporting event for people with disabilities played a few days after the Olympic Games) also has its own flag and “hymn”.

The “Anthem of the Future” (Hymne de l'Avenir) is a musical piece composed by Thierry Darnis and was officially adopted by the International Paralympic Committee on March 1966.

Australian country singer Graeme Connors wrote the lyrics for the hymn in 2001, but they are rarely used.

The Taliban, a militant Islamic organization, has had de facto control of the government of Afghanistan twice, from 1996-2001 following the Afghan civil war that broke out once the Soviets were expelled, and then since August 2021, when troops from the United States, which had been in the country since the defeat of the Taliban government by them in 2001, left Afghanistan. Both times a nasheed (an Islamic chant, often religious in nature, but can be cultural, that is usually sung a cappella) titled “This Is the Home of the Brave” has been used as the de facto national anthem. (During the first Taliban rule, no specific national anthem was officially declared as an anthem, however “This Is the Home of the Brave” has been heard at the beginning of Taliban radio broadcasts and at the opening of Taliban representative offices when the flag is raised.) Even when not in government, the Taliban continued to use the nasheed in this capacity.

As mentioned, nasheeds, including “This Is the Home of the Brave”, are often a cappella, but are sometimes accompanied by minimal musical accompaniment like drums. However, the Taliban’s particular interpretation of religious law says that musical instruments are forbidden and thus it is assumed that it is always performed a cappella in official government settings. Thus it is often erroneously reported that Afghanistan had/has no anthem under Taliban rule; it is more true that they don’t have an anthem as traditionally used by countries, and not one that can be played by instruments alone, as anthems are often represented. “This Is the Home of the Brave” is a call-and-response type nasheed, where one or two lines are sung out and the line or lines are repeated by the listener. The lyrics as presented could have slightly different arrangement with the verses, how many times they are repeated, etc.

Taliban rule is not recognized by most other governments, and there are also resistance groups in Afghanistan that work against the Taliban rule. One of the most prominent, the Northern Alliance, use the 1992-2006 anthem as their anthem, and even when they have reformed to battle the second Taliban government in 2021, they continue to use that anthem. The government the Taliban ousted in 2021 continue to use their anthem in exile.

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Nom / Name / 名前 - États-Unis / USA / アメリカ
Code du CIO / IOC code / IOCコード - USA
Concurrents / Competitors / 競合他社 - 613 (dans 35 sports / in 35 sports / 35スポーツ中)
Porte-drapeau (ouverture) / Flag bearer (opening) / 旗手(開会)- Eddy Alvarez, Sue Bird / エディ・アルバレス、スー・バード
Porte-drapeau (clôture) / Flag bearer (closing) / 旗手(閉会)- Kara Winger / カラ・ウィンガー
Médailles / Medals / メダル - 113 (39G, 41S, 33B)
Rang / Rank / ランク - 1

Nom / Name / 名前 - Chine / China / 中国
Code du CIO / IOC code / IOCコード - CHN
Concurrents / Competitors / 競合他社 - 406 (dans 30 sports / in 30 sports / 30スポーツ中)
Porte-drapeau (ouverture) / Flag bearer (opening) / 旗手(開会)- Zhū Tíng, Zhào Shuài / 朱婷、趙帥 (朱婷,赵帅)
Porte-drapeau (clôture) / Flag bearer (closing) / 旗手(閉会)- Sū Bǐngtiān / 蘇炳添 (苏炳添)
Médailles / Medals / メダル - 88 (38G, 32S, 18B)
Rang / Rank / ランク - 2

Nom / Name / 名前 - Japon / Japan / 日本
Code du CIO / IOC code / IOCコード - JPN
Concurrents / Competitors / 競合他社 - 556 (dans 37 sports / in 37 sports / 37スポーツ中)
Porte-drapeau (ouverture) / Flag bearer (opening) / 旗手(開会)- Rui Hachimura, Yui Susaki / 八村塁、須崎優衣
Porte-drapeau (clôture) / Flag bearer (closing) / 旗手(閉会)- Ryo Kiyuna / 喜友名諒
Médailles / Medals / メダル - 58 (27G, 14S, 17B)
Rang / Rank / ランク - 3

Nom / Name / 名前 - Grande-Bretagne / Great Britain / イギリス
Code du CIO / IOC code / IOCコード - GBR
Concurrents / Competitors / 競合他社 - 230 (dans 17 sports / in 17 sports / 17スポーツ中)
Porte-drapeau (ouverture) / Flag bearer (opening) / 旗手(開会)- Hannah Mills, Moe Sbihi / ハンナ・ミルズ、モー・スビヒ
Porte-drapeau (clôture) / Flag bearer (closing) / 旗手(閉会)- Laura Kenny / ローラ・ケニー
Médailles / Medals / メダル - 65 (22G, 21S, 22B)
Rang / Rank / ランク - 4

Nom / Name / 名前 - Comité olympique russe / Russian Olympic Committee / ロシアオリンピック委員会 (Олимпийский комитет России)
Code du CIO / IOC code / IOCコード - ROC
Concurrents / Competitors / 競合他社 - 335 (dans 30 sports / in 30 sports / 30スポーツ中)
Porte-drapeau (ouverture) / Flag bearer (opening) / 旗手(開会)- Sofya Velikaya, Maksim Mikhaylov / ソフィア・ベリカヤ、マキシム・ミハイロフ (Софья Великая, Максим Михайлов)
Porte-drapeau (clôture) / Flag bearer (closing) / 旗手(閉会)- Abdulrashid Sadulaev / アブドゥルラシド・サドゥラエフ (Абдулрашид Садулаев)
Médailles / Medals / メダル - 71 (20G, 28S, 23B)
Rang / Rank / ランク - 5

Nom / Name / 名前 - Australie / Australia / オーストラリア
Code du CIO / IOC code / IOCコード - AUS
Concurrents / Competitors / 競合他社 - 478 (dans 30 sports / in 30 sports / 30スポーツ中)
Porte-drapeau (ouverture) / Flag bearer (opening) / 旗手(開会)- Cate Campbell, Patty Mills / ケイト・キャンベル、パティ・ミルズ
Porte-drapeau (clôture) / Flag bearer (closing) / 旗手(閉会)- Mathew Belcher / マシュー・ベルチャー
Médailles / Medals / メダル - 46 (17G, 7S, 22B)
Rang / Rank / ランク - 6

Nom / Name / 名前 - Pays-Bas / Netherlands / オランダ (Nederland)
Code du CIO / IOC code / IOCコード - NED
Concurrents / Competitors / 競合他社 - 278 (dans 27 sports / in 27 sports / 27スポーツ中)
Porte-drapeau (ouverture) / Flag bearer (opening) / 旗手(開会)- Churandy Martina, Keet Oldenbeuving / チュランディ・マルティナ、ケート・オルデンベービング
Porte-drapeau (clôture) / Flag bearer (closing) / 旗手(閉会)- Sifan Hassan / シファン・ハッサン
Médailles / Medals / メダル - 36 (10G, 12S, 14B)
Rang / Rank / ランク - 7

Nom / Name / 名前 - France / フランス
Code du CIO / IOC code / IOCコード - FRA
Concurrents / Competitors / 競合他社 - 385 (dans 31 sports / in 31 sports / 31スポーツ中)
Porte-drapeau (ouverture) / Flag bearer (opening) / 旗手(開会)- Clarisse Agbegnenou, Samir Aït Saïd / クラリス・アグベニュー、サミール・アイット・サイード
Porte-drapeau (clôture) / Flag bearer (closing) / 旗手(閉会)- Steven Da Costa / スティーブン・ダ コスタ
Médailles / Medals / メダル - 33 (10G, 12S, 11B)
Rang / Rank / ランク - 8

Nom / Name / 名前 - Allemagne / Germany / ドイツ (Deutschland)
Code du CIO / IOC code / IOCコード - GER
Concurrents / Competitors / 競合他社 - 425 (dans 32 sports / in 32 sports / 32スポーツ中)
Porte-drapeau (ouverture) / Flag bearer (opening) / 旗手(開会)- Laura Ludwig, Patrick Hausding / ラウラ・ルートヴィヒ、パトリック・ホイスディン
Porte-drapeau (clôture) / Flag bearer (closing) / 旗手(閉会)- Ronald Rauhe / ロナルド・ロイエ
Médailles / Medals / メダル - 37 (10G, 11S, 16B)
Rang / Rank / ランク - 9

Nom / Name / 名前 - Italie / Italy / イタリア (Italia)
Code du CIO / IOC code / IOCコード - ITA
Concurrents / Competitors / 競合他社 - 373 (dans 28 sports / in 28 sports / 28スポーツ中)
Porte-drapeau (ouverture) / Flag bearer (opening) / 旗手(開会)- Jessica Rossi, Elia Viviani / ジェシカ・ロッシ、エリア・ヴィヴィアーニ
Porte-drapeau (clôture) / Flag bearer (closing) / 旗手(閉会)- Marcell Jacobs / マルセル・ジェイコブス
Médailles / Medals / メダル - 40 (10G, 10S, 20B)
Rang / Rank / ランク - 10

Interprété par les élèves du Lycée de Koriyama (Fukushima) et Académie des filles de Toshimaoka. Les paroles utilisées sont la version entendue pour la première fois aux Jeux olympiques d'été de 1984, par W. Earl Brown et Shirley Russ.

Performed by the students of Fukushima Koriyama High School and Toshimagaoka Girl's High School. Lyrics used is the version first heard in the 1984 Summer Olympics, by W. Earl Brown and Shirley Russ.

福島郡山高校と豊島岡女子高校の生徒による演奏。 使用されている歌詞は、1984年の夏季オリンピックで最初に聞いた、W・アール・ブラウンとシャーリー・ラスのバージョンです。

Comprend des sous-titres grecs et japonais. / Includes Greek and Japanese subtitles. / ギリシャ語と日本語の字幕が含まれています。

(Source d'origine utilisée / Original source used / 使用された元のソース:

The Olympics Games (an international sporting event played every four years) has its own flag and “hymn”, used when the Olympic flag is raised, usually during the opening and closing ceremonies.

The Olympic Hymn first appeared at the first Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. The lyrics were written in Greek by Greece’s national poet, Kostis Palamas and set to music by Spyros Samaras for the 1896 Games. The hymn was not used again, nor was it officially adopted, for several decades; until the 1960 Games, each country would commission local composers to compose an Olympic hymn for that particular Games. A hymn was officially adopted in 1954 and used in the 1956 Games, which was intended to be the Olympic hymn, but due to disputes, the original Olympic hymn was unanimously adopted as the official Olympic Hymn at the 1958 IOC meeting. Written in Greek, the IOC’s preference is that the Olympic Hymn be performed in either English or Greek. If it is to be performed in the local language, it is to be translated from the original Greek, rather than the English.

National anthems play a big part in the Olympic Games. Starting with the 1924 Games, the winner’s national anthem for each event is played as their flag is hoisted in celebration. Also, according to Olympic rules, national anthems cannot be longer than 80 seconds in length, causing some countries to create a shortened version of their anthem to be played at the Games in the event that their participant wins. (Ironically, the full version of the Olympic Hymn is several minutes long!) Also, a nation may choose to have another anthem played instead of their national one if they so choose; for example, at the 1992 Games, the former Soviet republics united under a team known as the “Unified Team”, whenever a member of this team won their event, they chose the song “Ode to Joy” to be played. During the 1980 Games in Moscow, several non-communist countries that were participating chose to have the Olympic Hymn played rather than their own anthem when they won their event. Also, because of conflicts with China, Taiwan has a special song which they use for such events known as the “Flag Raising Song”.

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While in use since the early 1880s as a national anthem on a de facto basis, and the words to the anthem are from the tenth century or earlier (making “Kimigayo” the oldest national anthem in that sense), the government only officially adopted the anthem in 1999. The government presented its interpretation of the meaning of the anthem “Kimigayo” in the Diet during the deliberation of a bill to codify the country’s national flag and anthem. At the plenary session of the House of Representatives of the Diet held on June 29, 1999, Prime Minister Obuchi explained as follows: “The ‘Kimi’ in ‘Kimigayo’, under the current Constitution of Japan, indicates the Emperor, who is the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people, deriving his position from the will of the people with whom resides sovereign power; ‘Kimigayo’ as a whole depicts the state of being of our country, which has the Emperor – deriving his position from the will of the people with whom resides sovereign power – as the symbol of itself and of the unity of the people; and it is appropriate to interpret the words of the anthem as praying for the lasting prosperity and peace of our country.”

It is not known who first wrote the words of the anthem. They first appeared in the Kokinshu, a collection “of ancient and modern poems” dating from the tenth century. From very early times, the poem was recited to commemorate auspicious occasions and at banquets celebrating important events. The words were often put to music and were also used in fairy tales and other stories and even appeared in the Edo-period popular fiction known as ukiyo-zoshi and in collections of humorous kyoka (mad verse).

When the Meiji period began in 1868 and Japan made her start as a modern nation, there was not yet anything called a “national anthem.” In 1869 the British military band instructor John William Fenton, who was then working in Yokohama, learned that Japan lacked a national anthem and told the members of Japan’s military band about the British national anthem “God Save the King.” Fenton emphasized the necessity of a national anthem and proposed that he would compose the music if someone would provide the words. The band members requested Artillery Captain Oyama Iwao, who was well versed in Japanese and Chinese history and literature, to select appropriate words for such an anthem. Fenton put his own music to the “Kimigayo” words selected by Oyama, and the first “Kimigayo” anthem was the result. The melody was, however, completely different from the one known today. It was performed, with the accompaniment of brass instruments, during an army parade in 1870, but it was later considered to be lacking in solemnity, and it was agreed that a revision was needed. In 1876, Osamu Yusuke, the director of the Naval Band, submitted to the Navy Ministry a proposal for changing the music, and on the basis of his proposal it was decided that the new melody should reflect the style used in musical chants performed at the imperial court. In July 1880, four persons were named to a committee to revise the music. They were Naval Band director Nakamura Yusuke; Army Band director Yotsumoto Yoshitoyo; the court director of gagaku (Japanese court music) performances, Hayashi Hiromori; and a German instructor under contract with the navy, Franz Eckert. Finally a melody produced by Hiromori Hayashi was selected on the basis of the traditional scale used in gagaku. Eckert made a four-part vocal arrangement, and the new national anthem was first performed in the imperial palace on the Meiji Emperor’s birthday, November 3, 1880. This was the beginning of the “Kimigayo” national anthem we know today.

There has been some opposition lately to the “Kimigayo” both within Japan and in other East Asian countries, for its association with militarism, and for the virtual worship of the emperor in the lyrics.

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While widely thought to have been composed by Guiseppe Verdi, the anthem first used by the Khedive of Egypt was composed by an Italian, Giuseppe Pugioli. Pugioli (who came to Egypt late in 1871) composed the tune as a way for the soldiers to mark time in step. One day, the Khedieve Ismail Pasha stopped by the barracks when the soldiers were practicing their marching to the beat of Pugioli’s tune. The Khedive was immediately interested in the tune and asked to have it arranged for a brass band to play. It was then decided to make it the Khedivial Anthem. (This was possibly sometime shortly after Pugioli’s arrival in Egypt.)

After the monarchy was deposed in 1952, it was still used as the national anthem, only the title was changed to reflect the country’s new status as a republic (“يسسالام الجمهوري المصري”, “es-Salaam el-Gamhoury el-Masry”). In 1958, Egypt entered into a union with Syria known as the United Arab Republic; the anthem of the UAR was this anthem, followed by the Syrian anthem.

Despite the Italian nationality of the composer, the anthem is very typical of others used in the area at the time: a classic example of the “Arab fanfare” style of anthem.

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One of the more unique anthems of the world, Mauritania’s anthem is based on a late eighteenth-century poem by Baba Ould Cheikh, who was inspired to write due to the problem of the myriad of Arabian sects that were developing at the time.

The first president of the country, shortly before independence from France, asked the director of the orchestra of the French broadcasting service, Tolia Nikiprovetzki, to select a melody to be used for the future anthem. This melody, known for many centuries and was the melody that originally belonged to the verses, was selected from the many selections of folk music that were considered.

The peculiar rhythm of the anthem (known as “fatchou”) makes it very difficult to sing, thus the anthem was often (but erroneously) listed as wordless.

In 2017, the anthem was replaced as a result of a national referendum.

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The text was written in 1811 by Bernese philosophy professor Johann Rudolf Wyss, as a “war song for Swiss artillerymen”. It is set to the tune of the British royal anthem “God Save the King” (c. 1745), a tune which became widely adopted in Europe, first as the German hymn “Heil, unserm Bunde Heil” (August Niemann, 1781), somewhat later as “Heil dir im Siegerkranz” (Heinrich Harries 1790, originally with Danish lyrics, the German adaptation for use in Prussia dates to 1795), and as anthem of the United States, “My Country, 'Tis of Thee” (1831).

In Switzerland during the 1840s and 1850s, the hymn was regularly sung at patriotic events and at political conventions. It is referred to as “the national anthem” (die Nationalhymne) in 1857, in the contest of a “serenade” performed for general Guillaume Henri Dufour. The Scottish physician John Forbes, who visited Switzerland in 1848, likewise reports that the tune of “God save the King” “seems to be adopted as the national anthem of the Swiss also”.

The German lyrics were translated into French in 1857, as the result of a competition sponsored by the Societé de Zofingue of Geneva. The competition was won by Henri Roehrich (1837– 1913), at the time a student of philosophy, whose text is less explicitly martial than the German lyrics, beginning Ô monts indépendants / Répétez nos accents / Nos libres chants (O free mountains / echo our calls / our songs of liberty) and comparing the Rütli oath with a Republican Liberty Tree.

Yet in spite of the Republican sentiment in the lyrics, the tune remained more strongly associated with royalism and conservativism, and it remained the anthem of the British, the German and the Russian empires. This fact, and the lack of association of the tune with Switzerland in particular, led to the desire to find a replacement, which came in the form of the Swiss Psalm (composed 1841), from 1961 as a provisional experiment, and since 1981 permanently.

This anthem is possibly the shortest anthem in existence. A typical example of the “Arab fanfare” style of anthem, there are no words, and there are only eleven measures to the song. The music is possibly of an Indian origin.

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