On a visit to Moldova in 1999 we spent a few nights in the village of Sofia, Moldova. We lived in this village for about six month a few years prior to the video being taken and still had friends there. This is simply a video of us getting to our friends house, which shows to a very small degree some of the challenges villagers face.

A short snippet from a 1999 trip to Moldova. Moldova is a Eastern European country that sits between Romania (to the west) and Ukraine (to the north and east).

I'm posting this for someone else. Representative Seth Berglee speaks first. Senator David Howard speaks next. Lastly, Representative Matt Rosendale speaks. What Rosendale had to say at the 30 minute mark was really interesting.

This is a short video of the discussion on the floor before the vote. You can read particularities of the bill here ($BSRV.ActionQuery?P_SESS=20211&P_BLTP_BILL_TYP_CD=HB&P_BILL_NO=702&P_BILL_DFT_NO=&P_CHPT_NO=&Z_ACTION=Find&P_ENTY_ID_SEQ2=&P_SBJT_SBJ_CD=&P_ENTY_ID_SEQ=)SBJT_SBJ_CD=&P_ENTY_ID_SEQ=).
I'm a little concerned that the bill was amended by the Governor to specify that this bill really only applies to experimental vaccines or vaccines undergoing safety trials (read for yourself
For your reading:
Section 1. Discrimination based on vaccination status or possession of immunity passport prohibited -- definitions. (1) Except as provided in subsection (2), it is an unlawful discriminatory practice for:

(a) a person or a governmental entity to refuse, withhold from, or deny to a person any local or state services, goods, facilities, advantages, privileges, licensing, educational opportunities, health care access, or employment opportunities based on the person's vaccination status or whether the person has an immunity passport;

(b) an employer to refuse employment to a person, to bar a person from employment, or to discriminate against a person in compensation or in a term, condition, or privilege of employment based on the person's vaccination status or whether the person has an immunity passport; or

(c) a public accommodation to exclude, limit, segregate, refuse to serve, or otherwise discriminate against a person based on the person's vaccination status or whether the person has an immunity passport.

(2) This section does not apply to vaccination requirements set forth for schools pursuant to Title 20, chapter 5, part 4, or day-care facilities pursuant to Title 52, chapter 2, part 7.

(3) A person, governmental entity, or an employer does not unlawfully discriminate under this section if they recommend that an employee receive a vaccine.

(4) An individual may not be required to receive any vaccine whose use is allowed under an emergency use authorization or any vaccine undergoing safety trials.

(5) As used in this section, the following definitions apply:

(a) "Immunity passport" means a document, digital record, or software application indicating that a person is immune to a disease, either through vaccination or infection and recovery.

(b) "Vaccination status" means an indication of whether a person has received one or more doses of a vaccine.

Transplanting plants. We do this when the seedlings outgrow their original planter. Mixing the soil for use in larger containers is the same process we used for mixing the soil to start seeds.

Planting garlic. Quite simple. Just make sure you have the top side up, the part of the garlic where the shoot comes out.

The Carbon County Republican Women had the Carbon county (Montana) commissioners as guests to discuss the proposed county jail and answer questions. I mentioned the Two Rivers Regional Detention Facility because that is part of the discussion, whether or not Carbon County could use that facility (Carbon county and Big Horn County are next to one another).
Meeting minutes:
From Pat Plowman "Commissioner Bill Bullock began with “jail facts.” The total cost in tax mils is estimated at 38.5 for operations and 21.3 for construction for a total of almost 60 mils. For exact figures and current estimates, go to the county website, said Bill. He reported a three hour conversation with the Hardin detention facility, leased by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and was told Carbon County could not show up tomorrow at Hardin with detainees. Bill reported the facility is not sound.
President Marble asked, “What it would take to make the facility usable for us? Is there not some one to break the political barrier around it?” The answer seemed to require State legislation as well as facility upgrades.
Another question was, how much would it cost to hire an extra one or two deputies just for transfers. Commissioner Bullock said the cost would be exorbitant. At present, transfers are usually performed by one deputy and one reserve deputy.
Another member asked if Carbon County was requesting COVID funds and why this jail must be balanced on the already overloaded “backs” of property owners. “Land values are already jumping and inflation accelerating.” Commissioner Bill Bullock said the COVID funds are in at least two categories, direct sending to counties and infrastructure which will be finalized in September. Bill said there will be an open forum April 20 to present the jail. The County Commissioners’ phone is 406-446-1595.
The was a question regarding the number of prisoners. The undersheriff estimated 20 per month.
A community member whose house is across the road from the proposed jail asked about in house medical and mental health care. This is presently provided by the Billings Clinic. The Joliet jail would hire one full time Registered Nurse and a part time doctor. He also asked about the average stay.
At this point Commissioner Bullock pointed to the 193 people in Carbon County with warrants of over half a million dollars for non-violent offenses such as bad checks.
Undersheriff Schmaltz answered in regard to average stay that at Bozeman the average is two weeks. Most arrests end with “citation and release.”
Commissioner Scott Blain in answer to questions about taxes noted that the top 50 taxpayers in Carbon County pay half the taxes. His own taxes would probably increase by $400. Express Pipeline might see an increase of $166,000. State Representative Seth Berglee has a bill to bring COVID money to Carbon County. He as well as Senator Howard can be messaged at 406-444-4800. Scott said he is meeting with the State Marshall but no committment has been made by Marshalls to use the proposed jail.
A Joliet resident asked for an estimate of the yearly operating cost. This would be about $2 million with an averave 6% growth, perhaps less. Stillwater County has yet to make a commitment for beds. Gordon Sirrine commented on the size of the jail, first 50, then 100, now 50 beds, when the Sheriff estimated Carbon County would use 20-25 beds. He also asked about the charge to other counties. Commissioner Bullock said Sweet Grass County was told $100 per day and he probably has a committment. Stillwater has not committed. A charge of $125 per day was suggested.
Another CCRW member asked about the cost for building the jail. The estimate is $19 million, then $2.17 million annually.
Former State Representative Scott Boggio asked about Carbon County taxes, which may go up 25% with the proposed school levies etc. He asked the Commissioners to look at negotiating with Hardin for space. Commissioner Bill Bullock said it depends on what Sheriff McQuillan wants. Transportation for other counties is an issue to be settled also if the jail is built. Contracts are being discussed and would probably be renegotiated every three years.
President Marble observed timing is also an issue. During the Trump years, the economy was expanding and taxes decreasing but taxpayers now are struggling and this will be a tough sell.
There was talk of the annual prisoner cost, about $300,000 presently, to be rolled into the $2 million for the jail. The sheriff’s budget is presently about $1 million. Said Commissioner Blain in regard to the Hardin facility, it is 60 miles down the road in another county. Other comments regarding keeping Carbon County money in county, rather than to Yellowstone etc.
A Red Lodge member asked about water, etc. infrastructure. Joliet would probably need to add expensive infrastructure."

Here is a quick walk though of one method you can use for planting seeds. Use seed starter mix not garden dirt. Make sure and have a location where the temp. is 80 degrees f. and there is plenty of light. Check your plants often (daily) to make sure they are not drying out. Sprinkle the seeds in rows and cover lightly.

DOT scale backed up west of Billings MT.

More from my dad on growing plants in cold climates. This short video is about grow boxes and why he uses a grow box. The advantage of a grow box is getting your seeds to come up well. Seeds need warmth and light. This is one method of ensuring your seeds have the heat and light they need for optimum germination. This video does not address how to build a grow box. This video addresses what a grow box is and the advantage of using a grow box.

The three components we discuss are the heat mat (, the lights (I’m not providing a link because there are too many options and I’m not getting into grow box light options) and the temperature probe which is also called a thermostat ( You can probably find better prices elsewhere, but these links will give you a place to start.

As always, if you have questions leave them in the comments or visit me on ( and shoot me a message.

Carbon County Republican Women (CCRW) meet every month (excluding December). January's guest was Attila who lived in Hungary under Communism. He speaks briefly about the realities of Socialism and Communism. Carbon county Montana is located in south central Montana, CCRW meetings are at the Fort restaurant and bar located in Rockvale, MT.

My dad has been gardening in Montana for over 40 years. This information will mainly be pertinent to people who live in a similar climate with similar soil (alkaline), but is generally good information for anyone who wants to get into gardening or get more out of their garden.
If you have any question, post them in the comments and we will address those questions next week.
Here are the links to seed and gardening stores that we use and have found to be reliable:
The flats referred to in the video are here (
Lettuce, carrots, beats, ad peas are the first to be planted outside. Here is an example of row cover (, we never use support hoops.

In Billings MT at the corner of King Ave and 24th street. Lots of honking and thumbs up.

Anne singing soprano and Val on piano singing alto.

Anne singing soprano and Val on the piano singing alto.

I'm using an old Poppery by Westbend. The process takes about four minutes. I listen to the sound of the beans cracking and usually stop at or around the first crack for a light roast. I do 3-3.5 oz of green beans by weight at a time (that's what the popper can handle).

This is the tail end of the roast. After I turned the popper off I poured the beans into the colander then poured those beans in a shallow pan and placed them in the fridge (to help cool them faster). I suppose I could just leave them in the colander, or skip the colander. Supposedly the flavor is best after 24-48 hours after roasting, I'll drink it either way. The flavor difference is nominal.


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