How accurate are false rape accusation statistics? When it comes to false rape accusations, the statistics are often flawed. So what percentage of rape allegations are false? The truth is, there IS no solid answer.

In the light of #believethewomen and the Brett Kavanaugh hearings, more eyes have turned to false rape studies. However, each false rape study has its own unique flaws. False rape accusation statistics and studies normally rely on self-reporting studies, as well as police reports.

So how many rape accusations are false? Like any study, the variables in fake rape studies have to be considered. While hoping for a quick answer on the issue, these flawed rape studies cant be used as an objective stance on the issue, because the true numbers could range anywhere. Rape is a serious issue, but you shouldn't rush to make bad arguments on social media, simply out of a lazy attempt to push an agenda.

Refining Reason Episode 33 - Fake Rape Study Analysis

Is anarchism possible? There are several arguments against anarcho capitalism and communism that illustrate the truth about anarchy. Anarchism is impossible regardless if you're talking about anarcho capitalism or anarcho communism.

I chose this topic due to certain libertarians such as Stefan Molyneux often citing an ancap society as the gold standard. However, there are certain functions that make anarchism impossible, mainly dealing with police, military, and immigration policies. The reason why anarcho capitalism doesn't work is because capitalism cannot guarantee security for an entire nation when profit motive is driving the company. Another reason why anarcho capitalism will never work, is due to any issues that arise when people or groups of people are unable to fund their protective forces. Pure libertarian capitalism emphasizes no government intervention. Many of these issues also work as arguments against anarcho communism as well. To be blunt, communism and capitalism outright fail when taken to a stateless model. While anarchism is not limited to just these two forms of anarchy ideologies, they are the most popular.

Refining Reason Episode 32 - Anarchism debunked

Today, I talk about dealing with death as an atheist, as well as refuting Pascal's wager. Debunking pascals wager is easy. Managing depression as an atheist is not (at first). However, dealing with depression as an atheist is not impossible.

Refuting Pascals Wager comes down to realizing that there is not just one religion and that there is more to lose by simply accepting religion. One of the problems with Pascal's Wager is that it simplifies the argument as a sort of spiritual bet, and that uncertainty may not be a good method in discrediting religion. Pascal's Wager used to be a more popular atheist debate, but it has since become less of a sticking point in the community.

Dealing with no afterlife presents unique problems. When an atheist discusses death, it is often presented in an unconvincing manner. Since there aren't many people who explain how to deal with depression as an atheist, it can seem to some that this problem is worse than it is. By dealing with death objectively, it becomes more about appreciating the good things in life and doing away with negative thinking. Dealing with death is something you should worry about later, when its an actual issue. You should just live your life the best you can on your terms.

Refining Reason Episode 31- Coping with death atheist

Today, I address some common questions about military life and police work. There are many pros and cons of the military and law enforcement. One of the pros and cons of law enforcement, for example, is having many crazy police stories that become pretty regular with police work. While I didn't have as many crazy military stories, it wasn't without its moments, as well.

One of the most common questions about police and military life, is the reasoning behind joining. There are several common ones which I explain, although there are many to pick from.

So whats it like being a cop? Its about as "fun" as one would imagine. The job is often unrewarding and negative. This is one area where its not at all the same as whats it like being in the military. At least the crazy law enforcement stories make up for it in some way. Long story short, the police officer and military lifestyle is definitely different, but not without some rewards.

How accurate is the Quran? Today, I explore the science of the Quran and Hadiths, as it is one of the most common Islam apologetics used. There are many ways to show the Quran is not scientific, as well as inconsistent. The issues don't rest on just the Quran, as the hadiths are not scientific as well, despite them being used to justify the contents of the Quran. There are too many mistakes in the Quran to explain in detail, but its clear it is flawed in many ways.

So how reliable is the Quran? Well the Quran is misleading. Many verses contradict each other, and the scientific contradictions in the Quran, as well as contradictions in the hadiths, are plentiful. Defeating Muslim apologetics is difficult, as they often devolve into arguments over translations more than anything. The best way I can show how to argue against Islam is by illustrating that it is frequently unreliable in establishing what is wrong from what is right. The Quran is not legitimate as a reliable source of information.

To watch someone much more knowedgeable and entertaining on the subject, I recommend watching the Apostate Prophet here:

Refining Reason Episode 16 - Atheist explains the Quran

By understanding capitalist theory, it becomes easy to understand how to succeed in capitalism. To demonstrate how capitalism works, its important to know how free markets work as a guiding principle. The ability for consumers and workers to operate in the free market of capitalism is the underlying reason why capitalism is good for the poor. Capitalism works because it is based in the voluntary exchange of goods/services for other goods and services. More importantly, its why capitalism works better than socialism.

Link to brief by Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality:

Why capitalism works and socialism doesn't? There are many reasons why capitalism works better than socialism. Everybody knows supply and demand of goods and services. But to know your worth, its better to understand the supply and demand of workers. When you understand why capitalism works, you are given much more control over how to gain financial freedom in the long term. What it takes to succeed in capitalism is to pursue the field where employers have the most difficulty attaining workers. Capitalism works better than socialism, pure and simple.

Refining Reason Episode 28 - Why am I poor capitalism

Many places have Infowars and Alex Jones banned on Youtube, Facebook, and several other platforms. When I saw Alex Jones banned on Facebook and a few other platforms, it didn't seem all that strange until I learned most had done this within a day of each other and several others having Infowars banned in just a few more days.

Is Alex Jones finished? Whether you believe having Alex Jones censored is restricting free speech or eliminating misinformation, it will not play out as the general public seems to believe. Regardless if someone had Infowars banned on Facebook, there are many other platforms that will be happy to distribute his show.

What's interesting is that Twitter has not had Alex Jones banned yet, although I suspect this is in part because they will downgrade his media in another method or they are wisely taking his business.

Ever since the Alex Jones Youtube ban was put into action, his presence on other media sites has grown exponentially in a very short time.

Having Alex Jones banned on social media giants will only do so much. They will have to have an outright internet blackout to keep him from continuing. One thing I can agree with, Youtube censorship has become overbearing, and anyone looking to have an audience should diversify among other social media platforms.

Refining Reason - Infowars banned on Youtube and other big tech companies.

There are many factors in how police interrogations work. Police interrogation methods rely on patience and rapport. How police interrogate a suspect can change the dynamic of the entire interview. Because police interrogations are so stressful, looking at how suspects answer mundane questions can lead you to abnormalities when asked more serious questions.

There are multiple methods in how police questions suspects, but a successful police interrogation relies on the level of comfort a subject feels with their interrogator. Police interviews are also very lengthy, lasting more than an hour if done properly. The manner in how police get confessions also rely on pairing each story given by the suspect. Confessions come when too much conflicting information is presented to the suspect. Police interview techniques relying too much on body language can be unreliable and is glorified quite a bit in the media.

The best method in how police trick you into confessing is by using effective lies to force someone to think they've been had. Cop interrogations are no fun, and that's why creating a more natural environment for the suspect builds a better interview process.

This video is an explanation on how propaganda works. I was a former Psychological Operations Specialist who deployed to Afghanistan in 2011. While this would be often called psychological warfare, propaganda can be used by anybody. There are also many reasons how propaganda spreads.

How propaganda is used today involves much more emphasis on marketing techniques instead of vague, "cartoonish" generalities. Propaganda used today is much more complex. You could say I was a former propaganda specialist, but much of what I did was innocent in nature. How people make propaganda is easy and just as easy to spread. How misinformation spreads in general, on the other hand, is a different topic covered in another episode.

The basic method in how to counter propaganda is to analyze the information yourself and decide if any logical fallacies are being used in the message. Propaganda today uses logical fallacies to reinforce their messages.

Refining Reason Episode 21-Propaganda explained in detail

How reliable is the Old Testament? Is the Old Testament flawed? By analyzing stories like the Enuma Elish, the Sumerian influence on the bible becomes apparent. There are several forged stories in the Old Testament, including the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Epic of Atrahasis. In both of these Sumerian myths, a great flood is predicted by a god, who instructs a man to build a boat, and is saved in a very similar manner.

What's wrong with the Old Testament? Well, the pagan influence of the Old Testament even appears in the literary style of the Torah, where Yahweh exclaims things like "in our image". The fact that multiple Sumerian tales in the bible exist suggests that the Torah's authenticity is questionable.

So why are these copied stories in the Old Testament? Given the close proximity of Jews and Sumerians, it seems likely they simply crossed cultures. Some of the Old Testament flaws could be simply from copying the story wrong.

In any case, this makes the old testament debunked and unreliable as a record for truth. The Old Testament errors and contradictions are not even mentioned in this video.

Refining Reasons Episode 21 - Old Testament plagiarized

What is life in the military like? Today, I explain some common military misconceptions, as well as common army myths. There are several myths about military life, but probably the most misunderstood idea is that military personnel don't carry weapons around for the most part.

So what is life in the military really like? What people don't know about the military is that there are many great and bad things that come with it. One of the common military myths that people believe is that you don't make any money, however, the military offers many types of support, including free housing and food. The military lifestyle can be difficult, but rewarding in many ways. Its not just the army, these common myths apply to any military branch.

What people don't know about the military is that there are plenty of employment opportunities that didn't used to exist. Other common myths about the military are regarding the rumors that are spread while in basic training, which are almost all false.

Matt Ward debunks some army myths in his video:

Refining Reason Episode 20 - Common military misconceptions explained

What is wrong with socialism? To understand the issues with socialism, understanding Marxist theory is key. The main reason why Marxism always fails, is that it requires an impossible measure of intervention of the natural method of the market. By understanding socialist theory, it becomes clear the reasons why socialism doesn't work.

What are the problems with socialism? Well the main reason why capitalism works better than socialism is that it artificially adjust the free market and is prone to corruption and violence. When someone asks, "Will socialism ever work in America?", I would reply we're already closer to socialism than capitalism now, and our bloated government expenditures are a signal of that transformation. There are honestly too many reasons why socialism fails. Yet, despite the various failed predictions made by Karl Marx, socialism remains popular among certain academics and younger groups. This occurs even when having Marxist theory explained to them.

Refining Reason Episode 19 - Socialism vs capitalism explained

This week, a Supreme Court freedom of speech decision prompts a store owner to display a No Gays Allowed sign in Tennessee. The racist Tennessee owner is a product of an event where a shop owner refuses service to gay couple.

It could be that the decision was not in fact inspired by the Supreme Court's decision, however, the justification for said decision is flawed, as it is cited to be a defense to the first amendment's free speech doctrine.

Refining Reason Episode 18 - Baker vs gay couple supreme court decision and Tennessee owner anti-gay sign

There's a reason why people believe conspiracy theories. Disproving conspiracy theories is difficult, because they can often be very vague. Its only by properly improving skepticism that conspiracy theories can be better evaluated. Just like hoaxes, its easy to see how conspiracy theories grow. Without developing skepticism, resisting conspiracy theories can be difficult and easy to spread. A government conspiracy theory is common, as very few people trust it given its long nature of secrecy.

Rejecting conspiracy theories involves evaluating the claims with its corresponding evidence. If a theory is complex, it is reasonable to require a well-developed case for its merits. When asking whether a claim is skepticism vs conspiracy theory, one should ask if they are accepting the answer that suits them best or one that is convenient. Michael Shermer explains that conspiracy theories are often involves hyper skepticism, where one must weigh the size and complexity of a theory before considering the evidence given. I hope this video better explains how to evaluate conspiracy theories, as it can be easy to fall into this camp and remain skeptical.

Refining Reason Episode 17- Skepticism vs Conspiracy Theories

What is the future of police technology? The emerging police technology of today is fascinating. The technological advances police will have include drones, augmented vision, and several more.

How will police battle crime? The future of crime and police are interwoven. As police technology improves, so will criminal technology. The future of police work will involve several changes that adapt to these growing problems. Futuristic police drones could patrol the skies, and portable fingerprint and DNA software could be in the hands of every police officer. In any case, futuristic police technology is fascinating, and it will be interesting to see what happens next.

Refining Reason Episode 16 - What is the future of law enforcement?


Created 8 months, 3 weeks ago.

15 videos


This show deals with skepticism, misinformation, and other related topics. Each episode, I explain a specific topic which can be debated in the comments. My goal is to give people an outlet to learn how to be skeptical of illogical arguments and have others teach me the same. If you have a subject you would like to be covered, let me know!

Being a skeptic doesn't mean you are flawless. Skepticism is a learned skill and we all make mistakes, regardless of how intelligent we are. With the growth of social media and a limited population of people educated in philosophy, it has been increasingly important to eliminate misinformation from truth. My aim is to help myself and others grow in developing their logic and learning more about the beliefs they subscribe to.

I am a former Psychological Operations Specialist deployed to Afghanistan in 2011, and a former police officer with 3 years of experience, including fingerprint collection, interrogation training, and other training.