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This is a toplist of the 30 oldest companies/brands in the world, still operating either in whole or in part today since inception.

The list excludes associations and educational, government, or religious organizations.

Sources: Bank of Korea, Tokyo Shoko Research

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This bar chart race shows the annual number of deaths due to fire, heat and hot substances, total and mortality rate per 100,000 people, by country and world, from 1990 to 2019.

Deaths due to fire or burns have been a significant global concern, with variations in trends depending on factors such as socioeconomic conditions, infrastructure, and public awareness. The majority of fire-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, where access to advanced medical care and fire safety measures may be limited.

Several factors contribute to the occurrence of fire-related deaths, including residential fires, workplace accidents, and large-scale disasters. Common causes include faulty electrical systems, inadequate building codes, lack of firefighting resources, and human negligence.

Efforts to reduce fire-related deaths have included improvements in building safety standards, increased public awareness campaigns on fire prevention, and advancements in emergency response services. Despite these efforts, challenges persist, especially in regions where resources are scarce.

Data source: IHME

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This bar chart race shows cashew nuts production by country and world since 1961, measured in metric tonnes.

Cashew nut production has witnessed remarkable growth since 1961, evolving into a major global industry. The journey of cashew nuts, scientifically known as Anacardium occidentale, has been marked by shifts in production patterns, geographical expansions, and socioeconomic implications.

In the early 1960s, cashew production was concentrated in a few tropical countries, primarily in South America, Africa, and Asia. Over the decades, there has been a notable shift in the global distribution of cashew cultivation. While Brazil, Nigeria, India, and Tanzania were among the early players, countries like Vietnam, Ivory Coast, and Indonesia have emerged as key contributors in recent years.

Several factors have fueled this expansion. The adaptability of cashew trees to diverse climates, coupled with their resilience to harsh conditions, has encouraged cultivation in a broader range of regions. Additionally, the growing demand for cashew nuts in international markets, driven by their nutritional value and versatile applications, has incentivized farmers to increase production.

The processing of cashew nuts has also undergone significant changes. Traditionally, processing involved manual labor, but technological advancements have introduced mechanized methods, improving efficiency and output. This shift has not only boosted productivity but has also impacted employment patterns in the industry.

The socioeconomic impact of cashew production is noteworthy. Many cashew-producing regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, have experienced improved economic conditions due to the cashew industry. The cultivation of cashews has become a vital source of income for smallholder farmers, contributing to poverty alleviation and rural development.

Despite these positive trends, challenges persist. The industry is vulnerable to price fluctuations influenced by global market dynamics. Issues such as pests and diseases also pose threats to cashew production. Sustainable practices and initiatives aimed at addressing these challenges have gained traction, emphasizing the need for a balanced approach to ensure the long-term viability of the cashew industry.

In conclusion, the global cashew nut production landscape has transformed significantly since 1961. From its concentrated origins to a widespread, economically impactful industry, cashew cultivation has evolved with changing times. The challenges faced by the sector underscore the importance of sustainable practices and international cooperation to secure the future of this versatile and economically significant nut.

Data source: FAO

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This bar chart race shows the female labor in percentage of total labor, by country and world, lowest and highest, from 1990 to 2022.

Some smaller countries are not included. The female labor force in territories Macau and Hong Kong are high in recent years, but part of China statistics.

Source: World Bank

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This bar chart race shows the annual stillbirth rate by country and world, from 2000 to 2021, per 1,000 births.

A stillbirth rate is a critical health indicator that, in this case, measures the number of fetal deaths that occur in or after 28 weeks of pregnancy per 1,000 total births. It reflects the prevalence of pregnancies that do not result in a live birth and is a key parameter in assessing maternal and neonatal health, as well as healthcare system effectiveness in reducing stillbirths.

From 2000 to 2021, there has been a global effort to reduce the stillbirth rate. This rate decreased worldwide during this period, but significant regional disparities persisted. Many high-income countries saw substantial reductions in stillbirth rates due to improved healthcare infrastructure, access to prenatal care, and maternal education. Conversely, low-income and middle-income countries struggled to make similar progress, often facing challenges such as limited access to quality healthcare, malnutrition, and infectious diseases that can contribute to stillbirths.

Global health organizations and governments have made efforts to address this issue through initiatives like the Every Newborn Action Plan. Despite progress, more work is needed to ensure equitable access to healthcare and reduce stillbirth rates in underserved regions.

Data source: WHO

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This bar chart race shows the coal production by country/territory and world from 1900 to 2022, measured in terawatt-hours equivalents.

Coal production from 1900 to the present has been a dynamic and crucial aspect of global energy and industrial development. At the start of the 20th century, coal was the primary source of energy for industries and transportation, and several countries were prominent coal producers.

During the early 1900s, coal production was concentrated in major coal-producing nations such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, and Russia. The coal industry fueled economic growth, but it also faced labor disputes and safety concerns, leading to regulatory changes and labor movements.

The two World Wars increased demand for coal as an energy source, but the post-war years saw a gradual shift towards alternative energy sources. Environmental concerns and technological advancements led to the decline of coal as a primary energy source in many industrialized nations, particularly in Europe and North America. Coal mining also became more mechanized, reducing the need for labor.

In the latter half of the 20th century and into the 21st century, coal production remained important in regions like China, India, and parts of Southeast Asia. Rapid industrialization and urbanization drove increased coal consumption in these areas. However, global efforts to combat climate change and reduce carbon emissions brought greater attention to the environmental impact of coal use.

Recent decades have seen a push towards cleaner energy sources in many countries, such as natural gas and renewable energy, resulting in a decrease in coal's share of the global energy mix. The decline of coal mining in many Western nations has been accompanied by debates over job losses, community impacts, and the transition to more sustainable industries.

Overall, coal production has undergone significant shifts in the past century. It has moved from being the dominant energy source worldwide to facing challenges due to environmental and economic factors. The future of coal production remains a topic of discussion as the world seeks a balance between energy needs and sustainability.

Data source: Energy Institute Statistical Review of World Energy (2023), The Shift Data Portal.

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The Global Militarisation Index (GMI) is a measure that assesses the extent of militarization in a country. It's compiled by the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC). The index provides a numerical score to indicate the level of military influence and presence in a given nation.

What does it measure?
The GMI measures how much a country relies on military forces and resources in its society. This includes factors like military spending, the size of armed forces, and the presence of military capabilities.

How are scores assigned?
Countries with higher military expenditures, larger armed forces, and more military infrastructure receive higher scores. Conversely, countries with lower levels of militarization get lower scores.

Why is it important?
The GMI helps us understand the degree to which a country is invested in its military. High scores might indicate a focus on defense or, in some cases, suggest the potential for conflict. On the other hand, lower scores could indicate a more peaceful or demilitarized approach.

What do the scores mean?
The scores are relative and are useful for comparing militarization levels among different countries. A higher score doesn't necessarily mean a country is aggressive, but it suggests a higher degree of military preparedness or reliance.

Who uses it?
Policymakers, researchers, and the general public can use the GMI to gain insights into a country's approach to its military. It can inform discussions about global security, arms control, and peacebuilding efforts.

Remember, the GMI is just one tool among many to understand a country's stance on militarization. It's important to consider other factors and context when interpreting these scores.

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Central Government Debt by Country 1950-2022 | Percent of GDP

This bar chart race shows the central government debt by country/territory, in percent of GDP, from 1950 to 2022.

Central government debt refers to the total amount of money that a national government owes to external creditors and domestic lenders. This debt is typically incurred through borrowing to finance government expenditures, such as public infrastructure projects, social programs, and budget deficits. Governments issue bonds and other securities to raise funds, and the accumulation of these financial obligations constitutes the central government debt.

The debt-to-GDP ratio is a key metric used to assess the sustainability of a country's debt. It is calculated by dividing the total central government debt by the country's gross domestic product (GDP) and expressing the result as a percentage. This ratio provides insight into the relative size of the government's debt burden in relation to the overall economic output of the country.

A high debt-to-GDP ratio suggests that a country may face challenges in servicing its debt, as the debt burden is substantial compared to the size of the economy. It could lead to concerns about the government's ability to make interest payments and repay the principal amount. A lower ratio, on the other hand, indicates a more manageable debt level relative to the country's economic output.

Governments aim to strike a balance between borrowing to stimulate economic growth and maintaining a sustainable debt level. Excessive debt can lead to higher interest payments, diverting resources away from essential public services. Therefore, monitoring the central government debt in percentage of GDP is crucial for assessing fiscal health and making informed economic policy decisions.

Data sources:
International Monetary Fund (IMF, main source)
National Office of Statistics, Republic of Cuba
Central Bank of Egypt (2002-2022)
Central Bank of Libya (2018-2022)
Ministry of Finance, Panama (1991-2022)
State Statistical Comitee of The Republic of Tajikistan
Ministry of Planning and Finance, Government of Venezuela (2018-2022)

Not all countries are listed by IMF for the first two decades. Many countrys are first listed from early 1970s.
For Venezuela, the year 2022 is a forecast. For Lebanon, the year 2021 and 2022 are forecasts and may be higher or lower.

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This bar chart race shows the number of chickens slaughtered annually for meat, per capita by country and world from 1961 to 2021.

The numbers are based on production, not consumption.


TeknoAXE - Space Reggae

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The Logistics Performance Index (LPI) is a report card for how well a country manages the movement of goods. It looks at things like how quickly products can be shipped, how efficient customs procedures are, and the quality of transport infrastructure like roads and ports. Think of it as a way to measure how smoothly and effectively a country handles the process of getting things from one place to another. The higher a country's LPI score, the better they are at managing their logistics and transportation systems.

The higher the LPI score, the better the country's logistics performance. Scores range from 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest possible score. In this scale:
A score of 5 would indicate excellent logistics performance, implying that a country's logistics and transportation systems are highly efficient and effective.
A score closer to 1 would suggest poor logistics performance, indicating that there are significant challenges or inefficiencies in the country's logistics and transportation infrastructure.

LPI is produced by the World Bank, starting in 2007, then 2010, 2012,2014,2016,2018 and 2023. It is part of the World Bank's efforts to assess and measure the efficiency and effectiveness of logistics and trade facilitation in different countries around the world. The LPI is based on surveys and data collected from businesses, including freight forwarders and logistics professionals, to gauge their experiences and perceptions of the logistics and transportation systems in various countries. The World Bank then compiles and analyzes this data to create the LPI scores, which are used to rank countries in terms of their logistics performance.

Hotham - In Time

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This bar chart race shows accumulated reported terrorist attacks in country, region and world from 1970 to 2021. World numbers are also shown annually.

Data source is Global Terrorism Database (GTD).

GTD defines a terrorist attack as the threatened or actual use of illegal force and violence by a non- state actor to attain a political, economic, religious, or social goal through fear, coercion, or intimidation. In practice this means in order to consider an incident for inclusion in the GTD, all three of the following attributes must be present:

- The incident must be intentional - the result of a conscious calculation on the part of a perpetrator.
- The incident must entail some level of violence or immediate threat of violence -including property violence, as well as violence against people.
- The perpetrators of the incidents must be sub-national actors. The database does not include acts of state terrorism.

In addition, at least two of the following three criteria must be present for an incident to be included in the GTD:
- Criterion 1: The act must be aimed at attaining a political, economic, religious, or social goal. In terms of economic goals, the exclusive pursuit of profit does not satisfy this criterion. It must involve the pursuit of more profound, systemic economic change.
- Criterion 2: There must be evidence of an intention to coerce, intimidate, or convey some other message to a larger audience (or audiences) than the immediate victims. It is the act taken as a totality that is considered, irrespective if every individual involved in carrying out the act was aware of this intention. As long as any of the planners or decision-makers behind the attack intended to coerce, intimidate or publicize, the intentionality criterion is met.
- Criterion 3: The action must be outside the context of legitimate warfare activities. That is, the act must be outside the parameters permitted by international humanitarian law, insofar as it targets non-combatants.

Since data is based on news reports, attacks may be underreported in some countries. Especially in the 1970s.

Light Mister - Apocalypse https://soundcloud.com/light-mister/apocalypse
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This bar chart race shows the World Press Freedom Index by Country from 2013 to 2023.

The scores are based on the World Press Freedom Index (WPFI), and calculated as 100-N in this video. WPFI is an annual report and ranking published by the organization Reporters Without Borders (RSF). It assesses and measures the degree of freedom available to journalists and media organizations in countries around the world. The index considers factors such as government censorship, media independence, journalist safety, and legal frameworks for press freedom. Countries are assigned scores and rankings based on these criteria, with higher scores indicating greater press freedom and lower scores suggesting a more restrictive environment for journalism. The WPFI serves as a valuable tool for monitoring and advocating for press freedom globally, highlighting the challenges and threats faced by journalists in different regions.

Telepic Sounds - Beyond the Stars
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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This bar chart race shows the production of cobalt by country/territory and world from 1995 to 2022, measured in metric tonnes.

Cobalt is a vital industrial metal with diverse applications, primarily in the manufacturing of rechargeable batteries, superalloys for aerospace and gas turbines, and catalysts in the petrochemical industry. Here's a summary of cobalt production and its global trends from 1995 to 2021:

1995-2005: In the late 1990s and early 2000s, cobalt production was relatively stable, with primary mining operations mainly concentrated in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and a few other countries. This period saw modest growth in cobalt demand, primarily driven by the burgeoning mobile phone industry.

Mid-2000s: A surge in demand for portable electronic devices and the advent of electric vehicles (EVs) began to drive cobalt demand significantly. Prices started to rise as concerns about supply constraints grew. The DRC continued to dominate global cobalt production.

2010s: Cobalt production and prices experienced significant fluctuations during this decade. High prices and ethical concerns over mining practices in the DRC prompted efforts to diversify cobalt sources. Exploration in countries like Canada, Australia, and Russia gained momentum. Recycling of cobalt from end-of-life batteries also became more common.

Late 2010s: As EV adoption continued to grow, cobalt became a focal point of supply chain concerns due to its geopolitical risks and ethical issues surrounding its extraction. Battery manufacturers began to develop cobalt-reduced and cobalt-free battery technologies to mitigate supply chain risks.

2020s: The cobalt market experienced notable shifts. Cobalt prices remained relatively volatile, driven by factors such as fluctuations in EV demand, geopolitical tensions, and supply chain concerns. Efforts to reduce cobalt in batteries continued, and recycling technologies advanced, contributing to a more sustainable cobalt supply chain.

Throughout this period, the Democratic Republic of Congo remained the world's leading cobalt producer, supplying over 60% of global production. However, concerns persisted regarding labor conditions, child labor, and environmental impacts associated with cobalt mining in the DRC. Efforts to address these issues, such as responsible sourcing initiatives and certification programs, gained traction.

In conclusion, cobalt production has evolved significantly since 1995, driven by the expanding use of cobalt in batteries and other industries. The sector has faced challenges related to supply chain ethics, price volatility, and efforts to reduce dependency on cobalt. The future of cobalt production will likely continue to be shaped by technological innovations, sustainability efforts, and shifts in demand, especially from the growing electric vehicle industry.

Data source: Energy Institute Statistical Review of World Energy (2023)

Music: DEVCYGR - 3v01uTi0n
DEVCYGR - 3v01uTi0n By gbo.gr.cy is licensed under a Creative Commons License

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This video shows the prevalence of undernourishments in percentage of countries, regions and world population from 2001 to 2020.

Undernourishment, a persistent global issue, refers to a condition where individuals do not receive sufficient nutrients and calories to maintain a healthy and active life. This problem has been a major concern both at the international level and within individual countries, with significant developments occurring between 2001 and 2020.

Global Trends (2001-2020):

Progress and Setbacks: The period from 2001 to 2020 witnessed both progress and setbacks in the fight against undernourishment. Initially, there were some positive trends, with the number of undernourished people globally declining. This was partly due to economic growth and increased agricultural productivity in many regions.

Global Economic Crisis: The global economic crisis of 2008 had a negative impact on efforts to combat undernourishment. It led to rising food prices, making it difficult for vulnerable populations to access essential nutrition.

Climatic Challenges: Climatic events is a significant factor affecting food security during this period. Erratic weather patterns, such as droughts and floods, disrupted agricultural production and food distribution, exacerbating undernourishment in vulnerable regions.

Conflicts and Displacement: Conflicts and displacement, particularly in the Middle East and Africa, contributed to food insecurity. Millions of people were forced to leave their homes, leading to increased vulnerability to undernourishment.

Global Initiatives: International organizations, such as the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), set targets to eliminate hunger by 2030. Various initiatives, including the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) movement, aimed to coordinate efforts to combat undernourishment at the global level.

Country-Specific Trends (2001-2020):

Sub-Saharan Africa: Many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa continued to face significant challenges related to undernourishment. Factors such as population growth, poor infrastructure, and conflict often hindered progress in this region.

Asia: Several Asian countries made substantial strides in reducing undernourishment. Countries like China and India saw improvements due to economic growth, increased agricultural production, and targeted government programs.

Latin America: Some Latin American countries, like Brazil, implemented successful social programs that reduced undernourishment. However, disparities persisted within and between countries.

Middle East: Political instability and conflict in the Middle East, particularly in Yemen and Syria, led to severe food insecurity and undernourishment among affected populations.

Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Many countries in this region faced challenges in transitioning to market-based economies, affecting food security for vulnerable groups.

In summary, from 2001 to 2020, undernourishment remained a complex and persistent issue, with progress in some regions and setbacks in others. Global economic events, climate change, conflicts, and displacement played significant roles in shaping the prevalence of undernourishment during this period. Efforts were made at both global and national levels to combat this problem, but achieving food security for all remained a formidable challenge.

Data source: FAO/UN

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This bar chart race shows the annual rye consumption, kg per capita, by country and world from 1961 to 2020.

Since 1961, rye and its consumption have undergone significant shifts, reflecting changing dietary preferences, agricultural practices, and health perceptions. Rye, a cereal grain belonging to the wheat family, has a long history of cultivation and utilization. In recent decades, its role in human diets and global agricultural landscapes has evolved.

In the early 1960s, rye was a staple in many traditional diets, especially in European countries. It was commonly used to produce bread, as well as spirits like vodka and whiskey. Its nutritional profile, including high fiber content and a range of essential nutrients, contributed to its popularity.

However, as the 20th century progressed, dietary patterns started to shift. Refined and processed grains gained prominence, and rye faced competition from wheat, which was often favored for its lighter texture in baked goods. Consequently, rye consumption saw a decline, particularly in more developed nations.

Despite this decline, rye's nutritional benefits continued to be recognized. Its unique fiber composition, including soluble and insoluble fibers, offers potential health advantages such as improved digestion and blood sugar regulation. Researchers began investigating the potential of whole grain rye in promoting heart health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

Into the late 20th century and early 21st century, interest in traditional and whole foods rekindled. This revival led to a renewed appreciation for rye and its distinct flavors. Artisanal bread making and a focus on authentic, unprocessed ingredients spurred interest in rye-based products. Rye bread, with its hearty taste and potential health benefits, gained popularity among health-conscious consumers.

Furthermore, the concept of sustainable agriculture gained prominence, with rye proving to be an environmentally friendly crop due to its adaptability to diverse climates and lower requirements for pesticides and fertilizers compared to other grains.

From 1961 to the present, rye's journey is marked by fluctuations in consumption driven by changing dietary trends, agricultural practices, and health considerations. While it experienced a decline in popularity due to shifting preferences toward processed grains, its intrinsic nutritional value and versatility in culinary applications never waned.

As we move forward, rye's consumption may continue to rise as consumers become more educated about its health benefits and its potential role in sustainable food systems. Its resilience as a crop in various environmental conditions positions it favorably in the face of climate uncertainties. Ultimately, rye's story since 1961 reflects the intricate interplay between food culture, health awareness, and agricultural practices in shaping our diets and the way we interact with the natural world.

Data source: FAO

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This video shows the share of women in parliaments by number of countries from 1900 to 2022.

Over the past century, the share of women in parliaments worldwide has witnessed remarkable transformations, reflecting the persistent efforts to promote gender equality and women's representation in political decision-making. Beginning in the early 1900s, the journey towards greater female parliamentary participation has been both arduous and inspiring.

At the dawn of the 20th century, women's political participation was virtually non-existent in most countries. However, the suffrage movement gained momentum in various parts of the world, leading to significant breakthroughs. New Zealand became a trailblazer in 1893 by granting women the right to vote, followed by Australia, Finland, and Norway in the early 1900s. By the end of World War I, several European nations, including the United Kingdom, granted suffrage to some women. This progress opened the doors for women to contest parliamentary elections.

Despite these early stages, progress remained slow, and it wasn't until after World War II that the number of women in parliaments began to rise significantly. The years following the war saw an expansion of women's rights and opportunities, especially in Western democracies. In 1949, Israel's Prime Minister Golda Meir became one of the world's first female heads of government, inspiring countless women to enter politics.

The 1970s marked a turning point as the United Nations declared the International Women's Year, leading to the establishment of the Commission on the Status of Women. This initiative paved the way for gender mainstreaming in global politics and encouraged many countries to implement affirmative action measures to increase female representation in parliaments.

The 1990s and early 2000s saw unprecedented progress, with more countries enacting laws to promote gender equality. The number of female parliamentarians continued to rise, and some nations achieved impressive milestones. Rwanda, for example, emerged as a leader in female representation, with women comprising over half of its parliamentary seats by the mid-2000s.

However, despite the progress made, numerous challenges persisted. Moreover, in many regions, women's political participation remained significantly lower than that of men, creating a substantial gender gap in parliaments.

The global community recognized the importance of addressing these disparities, leading to international commitments like the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action in 1995. This landmark agreement sought to accelerate women's empowerment and promote equal representation in politics and decision-making roles.

In the 21st century, several countries continued to make strides in promoting women's representation in parliaments. Nordic countries like Sweden, Iceland, and Finland consistently ranked among the highest in female political participation. Additionally, countries like Spain, Germany, and Costa Rica implemented gender quotas and electoral reforms to enhance women's access to political positions.

As the world approached 2020, women constituted approximately 25% of parliamentarians globally, indicating substantial progress compared to the early 1900s. Nevertheless, more needed to be done to achieve gender parity and genuine equality in political representation. Women continued to face challenges such as underrepresentation in leadership positions, limited access to resources, and gender-based violence in politics.

In conclusion, the share of women in parliaments has witnessed a remarkable journey since 1900, reflecting the evolution of gender norms, social movements, and legislative changes worldwide. From gaining the right to vote to occupying high-ranking positions, women have made tremendous strides. However, persistent challenges and disparities remain, calling for sustained efforts to ensure equal representation and opportunities for women in political arenas.

Source: Varieties of Democracy project, Lührmann et al's Regimes of the World classification.

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This bar chart race shows the annual percentage of the population ages 15 years and over who use any tobacco product on a daily or non-daily basis, by gender, by country and world, 2005 to 2020.

Tobacco products include cigarettes, pipes, cigars, cigarillos, waterpipes (hookah, shisha), bidis, kretek, heated tobacco products, and all forms of smokeless (oral and nasal) tobacco. Tobacco products exclude e-cigarettes (which do not contain tobacco), “e-cigars”, “e-hookahs”, JUUL and “e-pipes”. The rates are age-standardized to the WHO Standard Population.

Source: World Health Organization, Global Health Observatory Data Repository

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This bar chart race shows the annual death rates from lead exposure by country and world, from 1990 to 2019, per 100,000.

Lead, a highly toxic heavy metal, has been used in various industrial and household applications for centuries, but its adverse health effects have only come to light in recent decades. Tragically, exposure to lead continues to claim lives, affecting populations across the globe, irrespective of geographical boundaries.

Causes of Lead Exposure:

Lead exposure primarily occurs through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact with lead-based products or contaminated substances. Some common causes of lead exposure include:

Paint and Dust: In the past, lead-based paint was widely used, and older buildings still contain layers of lead paint that can deteriorate over time, releasing lead dust into the air. Children living in such environments are particularly vulnerable to lead poisoning when they inhale or ingest this dust during play.

Drinking Water: Lead can leach into drinking water from old plumbing systems, lead pipes, or fixtures made with lead solder. Prolonged consumption of contaminated water can lead to severe health consequences.

Occupational Exposure: Workers in industries like mining, battery manufacturing, and recycling are at risk of lead exposure due to their proximity to lead-containing materials or processes.

Soil Contamination: Lead particles from industrial activities, emissions, or leaded gasoline can contaminate soil. This contamination can pose a threat, especially in urban areas or near industrial sites.

Geographical Distribution:

Lead exposure is not limited to a specific region but can be found across the globe. However, the prevalence and severity of lead poisoning vary based on socio-economic factors, industrialization, and regulation. Some regions are disproportionately affected:

Developing Nations: Many low and middle-income countries lack stringent regulations on lead usage and disposal, leading to higher exposure levels. Inadequate healthcare facilities may also contribute to higher mortality rates in affected areas.

Industrial Hubs: Regions with a history of heavy industries, such as mining, smelting, and manufacturing, may have elevated lead levels in their environment, impacting the health of local residents.

Urban Centers: In densely populated urban areas, aging infrastructure and buildings with lead-based paint can exacerbate the risk of exposure, especially for children living in poorly-maintained housing.

Impact on Health:

Lead exposure can have severe consequences for human health. Children and pregnant women are particularly vulnerable, as lead can hinder cognitive development, cause learning disabilities, and impair neurological functions. Adults can experience cardiovascular issues, kidney damage, and reproductive problems due to lead exposure. In extreme cases, lead poisoning can be fatal.

Prevention and Awareness:

Addressing deaths caused by lead exposure requires a multi-faceted approach:

Regulation: Governments must enforce strict regulations on lead usage in industries, paints, and products. Additionally, monitoring water quality and addressing lead contamination in old infrastructure is crucial.

Public Awareness: Raising awareness about lead exposure, its sources, and preventive measures is vital in empowering communities to protect themselves.

Remediation: Remediation efforts should focus on cleaning up lead-contaminated sites and promoting lead-safe practices in construction and renovation projects.

Health Interventions: Timely medical interventions, such as chelation therapy for severe cases of lead poisoning, can save lives and reduce long-term health impacts.

In conclusion, the tragic deaths caused by lead exposure remain a pressing global issue. The indiscriminate nature of this toxic metal demands collective efforts from governments, industries, healthcare professionals, and communities alike to mitigate its deadly effects. By prioritizing prevention, regulation, and education, we can hope for a future where lead exposure becomes a distant memory, sparing countless lives from its toxic grip.

Source: Global Burden of Disease Collaborative Network. Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019) Results. Seattle, United States: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), 2021.

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Youth literacy rate refers to the percentage of young people within age 15 to 24 years who can read and write with understanding. This video shows the youth literacy rates by country and world by gender from 1970-2021.

Data for each country are shown when they first appear in the compilation, and are interpolated between later dates. In this video, countries with lowest rates are shown in the list. Data on literacy are compiled by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics based on national censuses and household surveys and, for countries without recent literacy data, using the Global Age-Specific Literacy Projection Model (GALP).

Youth literacy rates have undergone significant transformations since the 1970s, reflecting the progress and challenges in education worldwide. The ability to read and write with understanding is a fundamental human right and a critical factor in personal development, social mobility, and economic growth.

In the 1970s, youth literacy rates varied considerably across countries, with developing nations facing more significant challenges in providing accessible and quality education. Limited infrastructure, insufficient resources, and societal disparities hindered progress. International organizations like UNESCO began recognizing the importance of literacy as a development tool, laying the foundation for future initiatives.

During the 1980s, concerted efforts by governments and non-governmental organizations led to modest improvements in youth literacy rates. Increased awareness of the link between literacy and socio-economic development spurred initiatives that targeted underserved communities and marginalized groups.

The United Nations established the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the 1990s, with one of the primary objectives being universal primary education, including youth literacy. This marked a turning point in the global commitment to improve literacy rates. Innovative programs, educational reforms, and international cooperation further accelerated progress.

The emergence of the digital age in the 2000s brought new opportunities for enhancing youth literacy rates. Technological advancements, including internet access and mobile devices, facilitated distance learning and e-learning initiatives. Online educational resources and digital libraries became more accessible, bridging the gap between rural and urban communities.

With the expiration of the MDGs in 2015, the United Nations adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Goal 4 emphasizes quality education and aims to ensure inclusive and equitable access to education for all. Youth literacy remained a crucial component of this broader agenda.

By 2021, substantial progress had been made in improving global youth literacy rates. Many countries achieved near-universal primary education, significantly reducing the number of out-of-school children. However, challenges persisted, particularly in conflict-affected regions and countries facing economic hardships. Gender disparities in literacy rates also remained a concern.

Several factors played pivotal roles in shaping youth literacy rates over the decades:
Government Commitment: Strong political will and investment in education were crucial in driving positive outcomes.
Teacher Training: Well-trained and motivated teachers were essential in delivering quality education.
Gender Equality: Promoting gender equality in education was instrumental in narrowing the literacy gap between boys and girls.
Socio-economic Factors: Poverty, inequality, and access to resources significantly impacted youth literacy rates.
Technological Advancements: Embracing technology widened access to educational resources and learning opportunities.

Over the years, the world has witnessed remarkable progress in youth literacy rates, indicating a growing commitment to inclusive education. However, challenges persist, demanding continued efforts to ensure quality education for all young people. As we move forward, collaboration between governments, international organizations, and local communities will be pivotal in realizing the vision of a literate and empowered youth population in the years to come.

Music by Nico Staf - Large Smile Mood
Data visualization created with flourish.studio and AI

This bar chart race shows the grape production by country and world from 1961 to 2021.

Numbers are metric tonnes.

Source: FAO

Imperss - Summer Green (Original Mix)

Data visualization created with flourish.studio and AI

This bar chart race shows the opioid use disorder death rates by country/territory and world from 1990 to 2019, per 100,000.

Data includes both sexes and are age-standardized.

Global Burden of Disease Collaborative Network. Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019) Results. Seattle, United States: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), 2021.

Darren Curtis - He's Changing the Game
Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows visually confirmed russian and ukrainian military vehicle and equipment losses during the invasion of Ukraine 2022-2023, from day 1 to 500.

Only vehicles and equipments with photo or videographic evidence are included. The real numbers are higher.

Numbers are shown at approximately days confirmed and interpolated.

Vehicles and equipments are merged into these main categories:
Battle Tanks
Armoured Fighting Vehicles (AFV)
Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFV)
Armoured Personnel Carriers (APC)
MRAP Vehicles
Infantry Mobility Vehicles (IMV)
Command Posts/Com Stations
Engineering Vehicles/Equipment
Self-Propelled Anti-Tank Missile Systems
Heavy Mortars
Artillery Support Vehicles and Equipment
Towed Artillery
Self-propelled artillery
Multiple Rocket Launchers (MRL)
Anti-Aircraft Guns
Self-propelled Anti-Aircraft Guns (SPAAG)
Surface-to-air missile systems (SAM)
Jammers And Deception Systems
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)
Naval Ships
Logistics Trains
Misc. Vehicles and Jeeps

Credits: Stijn Mitzer, Joost Oliemans Kemal, Dan and Jakub Janovsky at Oryx (oryxspioenkop.com)

Daniele Garuglieri - War Thunder
Soundcloud: https://soundcloud.com/d4ni3l3
Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC8XFrOYJnO6hk92WBLcxMKw
Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/DanieleCinematicEpicMusic
Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows the annual Esports earnings by country (players nationality), accumulated earnings by game and team, number of tournaments, total annual earnings and accumulated earnings, and the yearly top player's earning, from 1998 to 2022. Measured in nominal US Dollars.

Since its inception in 1998, esports has undergone a remarkable evolution, transforming from a niche hobby into a global phenomenon. Alongside its rise in popularity, esports earnings have skyrocketed, turning professional gamers into bona fide stars. In the late '90s, competitive gaming was just finding its footing. The groundbreaking release of Starcraft: Brood War in South Korea laid the foundation for esports as we know it today. The game's popularity surged, attracting a dedicated fan base and catapulting South Korea to the forefront of the esports scene. However, earnings during this period were modest, with only a select few managing to make a living solely through gaming.

As the new millennium began, games like Counter-Strike, Warcraft III, and Dota emerged, capturing the attention of gamers worldwide. Prize pools started to grow, but it wasn't until the mid-2000s that significant earnings started to materialize. The release of games like League of Legends and Dota 2 in the early 2010s brought about a revolution, with both titles offering lucrative tournaments and million-dollar prize pools.

In 2011, The International, Dota 2's flagship tournament, broke records by featuring a prize pool of $1.6 million. This marked a turning point for esports earnings, attracting mainstream attention and enticing more players to pursue professional careers. The exponential growth continued, with Valve's annual tournament regularly surpassing previous records. The International 2019 boasted an astonishing prize pool of over $34 million, cementing esports as a lucrative industry.

Notably, the rise of streaming platforms like Twitch and the expansion of sponsorship opportunities played a significant role in increasing esports earnings. Top players found additional revenue streams through content creation and endorsement deals, elevating their overall income.

The recognition and acceptance of esports as a legitimate sport also played a pivotal role in the growth of earnings. Major tournaments started to receive coverage on mainstream television networks, attracting more sponsors and investors. Traditional sports organizations recognized the potential of esports and began acquiring professional teams, further fueling the industry's growth.

In recent years, battle royale games like Fortnite and PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds (PUBG) have captured the spotlight. These titles introduced large-scale tournaments with massive prize pools, attracting players from various backgrounds. Epic Games, the developer behind Fortnite, offered a staggering $30 million in prize money for the 2019 Fortnite World Cup, solidifying the game's status as an esports powerhouse.

Esports earnings have continued to climb, with players now signing multi-million dollar contracts and competing in events with jaw-dropping prize pools. The exponential growth of the industry has also prompted governments and institutions to recognize esports as a legitimate career option, providing support and infrastructure to nurture talent.

As of today, esports stands as a billion-dollar industry, with the potential for further expansion. The journey from humble beginnings in 1998 to the present day has been nothing short of extraordinary. With constant technological advancements and a growing fan base, the future of esports earnings is poised for even greater heights.

Esports earnings have experienced a remarkable transformation over the years. What began as a niche interest has blossomed into a global phenomenon, captivating millions and offering life-changing opportunities for talented gamers. From modest prize pools to multi-million dollar contracts, the journey of esports earnings showcases the incredible growth and potential of this rapidly evolving industry.

Bridger - Impulsive
Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This bar chart race shows the annually lithium production by country and world from 1995 to 2022, and worlds reserves and resources, measured in tonnes.

PRODUCTION refers to the process of extracting lithium from reserves or resources and converting it into a usable form for various applications. It involves the physical extraction of lithium-bearing minerals or brines from the Earth's crust, followed by processing and refining to obtain lithium compounds or metals that can be used in batteries, ceramics, glass, lubricants, and other industrial applications.
The production of lithium typically involves several stages, which may vary depending on the specific type of lithium deposit and extraction method. These stages can include exploration, mining, crushing, beneficiation (concentration of lithium-bearing minerals), chemical or physical processing, and purification. The final product obtained from the production process is usually lithium carbonate or lithium hydroxide, which are the primary forms used in lithium-ion batteries.
Production levels are influenced by factors such as demand, market prices, technological advancements, mining operations, and environmental considerations.

RESERVES represent the known deposits of lithium that can be economically and technically extracted with current technologies and under present market conditions. These reserves have undergone detailed exploration and evaluation, including feasibility studies, and are considered economically recoverable.

RESOURCES encompass all known deposits of lithium, regardless of their economic viability. Resources include both identified and undiscovered deposits that have potential for future extraction.

Data sources:
USGS, BP/EI Statistical Review of World Energy
White Bat Audio - Athena
Karl Casey @ White Bat Audio https://whitebataudio.com
Data visualization created with flourish.studio

This video shows the largest empires in history by land area at their greatest extent, measured in approximately square kilometer and percentage of the world's dry land surface.

Some estimates may vary. In such cases, highest estimate is used.

Flags, symbols and artifacts are used for illustration. Several flags and symbols may be disputed, fiction etc. and are only used for illustration purposes.

Music by Chulainn Music:
1. Legio Of Mars
2. Leonidas Succession
Data visualization created with flourish.studio


Created 3 years, 8 months ago.

393 videos

Category Education

Welcome to my channel.

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