From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Confusion" redirects here. For other uses, see Confusion (disambiguation).
Mental confusion ICD-10 R41.0
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, noun of action from confundere "to pour together", also "to confuse") of a pathological degree usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location, and/or personal identity) sometimes accompanied by disordered consciousness and often memory (ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new material). Confusion as such is not synonymous with inability to focus attention, although severe inability to focus attention can cause, or greatly contribute to, confusion. Together, confusion and inability to focus attention (both of which affect judgment) are the twin symptoms of a loss or lack of normal brain function (mentation). The milder degrees of confusion as pathological symptoms are relative to previous function. Thus (for example) a mathematician confused about manipulation of simple fractions may be showing pathology which would not be diagnosable in a person without training in this area. Thus, as with the case of delirium, the minor degrees of pathological confusion cannot be diagnosed without knowledge of a person's "baseline", or normal, level of mental functioning.
Confusion may result from a relatively sudden brain dysfunction. Acute confusion is often called delirium (also called acute confusional state), although delirium also includes a broader array of disorders than confusion, e.g. inability to focus attention and various impairments in awareness and temporal and spatial orientation.
Confusion may also result from chronic organic brain pathologies such as dementia. In either case, confusion is usually associated with some degree of loss of ability to focus attention, but (as noted) the association is not invariable, especially for lesser degrees of impairment.
Many health problems may cause the syndromes of delirium or dementia. These syndromes may also occur together, and both of them usually include the symptom of confusion. Since mental function is extremely sensitive to health, the appearance of either a new confused state, or a new loss of ability to focus attention (delirium), may indicate that a new physical or mental illness has appeared, or that a chronic physical or mental illness has progressed (become more severe).
The bandwagon effect, closely related to opportunism, is a phenomenon—observed primarily within the fields of microeconomics, political science, and behaviorism—that people often do and believe things merely because many other people do and believe the same things. The effect is often called herd instinct, though strictly speaking, this effect is not a result of herd instinct. The bandwagon effect is the reason for the bandwagon fallacy's success.
The bandwagon effect is well documented in behavioral science and has many applications. The general rule is that conduct or beliefs spread among people, as fads and trends clearly do, with "the probability of any individual adopting it increasing with the proportion who have already done so". As more people come to believe in something, others also "hop on the bandwagon" regardless of the underlying evidence. The tendency to follow the actions or beliefs of others can occur because individuals directly prefer to conform, or because individuals derive information from others. Both explanations have been used for evidence of conformity in psychological experiments. For example, social pressure has been used to explain Asch's conformity experiments, and information has been used to explain Sherif's autokinetic experiment.
When individuals make rational choices based on the information they receive from others, economists have proposed that information cascades can quickly form in which people decide to ignore their personal information signals and follow the behavior of others. Cascades explain why behavior is fragile—people understand that they are based on very limited information. As a result, fads form easily but are also easily dislodged. Such informational effects have been used to explain political bandwagons.
Me (HiP.P/"He's only here because he's someones brother/dealer") sound checking, head expanding and doing fuck all at Dimensional Schizm in The Voodoo Lounge, Plymouth, UK on the 26 of June 2009
Cheers to DJ Contort for filming & Nomadchicken for the mask
Someone want to see