Charles-Marie Widor (1844-1937)

Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 41

I. Allegro 0:00
II. Andantino - Andante - Animato 10:38
III. Allegro vivace 16:07

Torleif Thedéen, cello
Royal Scottish National Orchestra
Martin Yates, conductor

Charles-Marie Jean Albert Widor (1844–1937) was a French organist, composer and teacher, most notable for his ten organ symphonies. He was born in Lyon, to a family of organ builders, and initially studied music there with his father, François-Charles Widor, titular organist of Saint-François-de-Sales from 1838 to 1889. The French organ builder Aristide Cavaillé-Coll, reviver of the art of organ building, was a friend of the Widor family; he arranged for the talented young organist to study in Brussels in 1863 with Jacques-Nicolas Lemmens for organ technique and with the elderly François-Joseph Fétis, director of the Brussels Conservatoire, for composition. After this term of study Widor moved to Paris, where he would make his home for the rest of his life. At the age of 24 he was appointed assistant to Camille Saint-Saëns at Église de la Madeleine. In January 1870, with the combined lobbying of Cavaillé-Coll, Saint-Saëns, and Charles Gounod, the 25-year-old Widor was appointed as "provisional" organist of Saint-Sulpice in Paris, the most prominent position for a French organist. The organ at Saint-Sulpice was Cavaillé-Coll's masterwork; the instrument's spectacular capabilities proved an inspiration to Widor. Despite his job's ostensibly "provisional" nature, Widor remained as organist at Saint-Sulpice for nearly 64 years, until the end of 1933. He was succeeded in 1934 by his former student and assistant, Marcel Dupré. In 1890, upon the death of César Franck, Widor succeeded him as organ professor at the Paris Conservatoire. The class he inherited was initially stunned by this new teacher, who suddenly demanded a formidable technique and a knowledge of J.S. Bach's organ works as prerequisites to effective improvisation. Later (1896), he gave up this post to become composition professor at the same institution. Widor had several students in Paris who were to become famous composers and organists in their own right, most notably the aforementioned Dupré, Louis Vierne, Charles Tournemire, Darius Milhaud, Alexander Schreiner, Edgard Varèse, and the Canadian Henri Gagnon. Albert Schweitzer also studied with Widor, mainly from 1899; master and pupil later collaborated on an annotated edition of J. S. Bach's organ works published in 1912–1914. Widor, whose own master Lemmens was an important Bach exponent, encouraged Schweitzer's theological exploration of Bach's music. Among the leading organ recitalists of his time, Widor visited many different nations in this capacity, including Russia, England, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Italy, Poland and Switzerland. In addition he participated in the inaugural concerts of many of Cavaillé-Coll's greatest instruments, notably Notre-Dame de Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Près, the Trocadéro and Saint-Ouen de Rouen. Well known as a man of great culture and learning, Widor was made a chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur in 1892, named to the Institut de France in 1910, and was elected "Secrétaire perpetuel" (permanent secretary) of the Académie des Beaux-Arts on 18 July 1914, succeeding Henry Roujon. In 1921, Widor founded the American Conservatory at Fontainebleau with Francis-Louis Casadesus. He was the Director until 1934, when he was succeeded by Maurice Ravel. His close friend, Isidor Philipp gave piano lessons there, and Nadia Boulanger taught an entire generation of new composers. At the age of 76, Widor married Mathilde de Montesquiou-Fézensac on 26 April 1920 at Charchigné. The 36-year-old Mathilde was a member of one of the oldest and most prominent families of Europe. She died in 1960: there were no children from this union. On 31 December 1933, at age 89, Widor retired from his position at Saint-Sulpice. Three years later he suffered a stroke which paralysed the right side of his body, although he remained mentally alert to the last. He died at his home in Paris on 12 March 1937 at the age of 93, and his remains were interred in the crypt of Saint-Sulpice four days later.

Alberto Curci (1886-1973)

Violin Concerto No. 2 in D Minor, Op. 30

1. Allegro giusto 0:00
2. Andante - Cadenza 8:38
3. Finale: Allegro moderato 14:05

Franco Gulli, violin
Studio Orchestra
Franco Capuana, conductor

Alberto Curci (1886 - 1973) was born in Naples, (the chief town of region Campania, Italy), and studied violin with the Master A.Ferni. In 1904 he graduated from the Neapolitan "San Pietro a Majella" Conservatory. The following year he went to Berlin to specialize under the guidance of Joseph Joachim and soon he began a swift and brilliant career, giving concerts for several years in the main European towns, the Dutch Indies and the East. On his return to Italy, Alberto devoted himself to the didactic career and he gained, owing to competitions, the violin teaching posts in Palermo and in Parma. Afterwards, Francesco Cilea, director of the "San Pietro a Majella" Conservatory of Naples, appointed him full professor of violin, without competition. Since then, Alberto spent 40 years moulding a crowd of remarkable violinists, both teachers and concert artists, including Aldo Pavanelli and Angelo Gaudino. In 1919, Alberto, with his brother Alfredo and the Master Oreste de Rubertis, set up a very noble initiative: the establishment of the "Friends of Music" Association, which was subsidized for patronage purposes by the "Curci Musical House". Among the pianists who were invited by the institution there were: Eugène D'Albert, Wihelm Bachaus, Artur Schnabel, Carlo Zecchi, Edwin Fischer, Walter Gieseking, Leonid Kreutzer, Leopold Godowski, Alexander Borowski, Alfredo Casella, Mario Castelnuovo Tedesco, Ernesto Consolo, Alfred Cortot, Arthur Rubinstein, Rudolff Serkin. Among the violinists: Carl Flesch, Ferenc von Vecscey, Arrigo Serato, Fritz Kreisler, Adolph Busch, Mario Corti, Remy Principe, Jascha Heifetz, Florizel von Reuter, Gioconda de Vito. Among the cellists: Arnold Földesy, Arturo Bonucci, Julius Doktor, Emmanuel Feuermann, Gaspar Cassadò, and among the groups: the Busch Quartet, the Budapest Quartet, the Consolo-Serato-Bonucci Trio.

Karel Kovařovic (1862-1920)

Piano Concerto in F minor, Op. 6

I. Allegro affetuoso 0:00
II. Larghetto 16:12
III. Vivace (scherzando) 24:23

Zdenek Jilek, piano
Prague Radio Symphony Orchestra
Josef Hrncir, conductor

Karel Kovařovic (1862 – 1920) was a Czech composer and conductor. From 1873 to 1879 he studied clarinet, harp and piano at the Prague Conservatory. He began his career as a harpist. In 1900 Kovařovic became the conductor of the national theatre in Prague, due mostly to the success of his opera The Dogheads, after the novel of the same name (about Jan Sladký Kozina) by Alois Jirásek. His engagement at the National Theatre lasted twenty years, until 1920. He composed seven operas. Kovařovic is most remembered today for the revisions he made to Leoš Janáček's Jenůfa for its premiere in Prague, and it was in his version that the opera was heard for many years. A recording of The Dogheads, featuring Beno Blachut, exists.

Ferdinand Ries (1784-1838)

Symphony No.3 in E-flat Major, Op. 90

I. Grave - Allegro 0:00
II. Larghetto quasi andante 9:22
III. Menuetto: Moderato 13:51
IV. Finale: Allegro vivace 18:32

Zurich Chamber Orchestra
Howard Griffiths, conductor

Ferdinand Ries (28 November 1784 [baptised] – 13 January 1838) was a German composer. Ries was a friend, pupil and secretary of Ludwig van Beethoven. He composed eight symphonies, a violin concerto, eight piano concertos, three operas, and numerous other works in many genres, including 26 string quartets. In 1838 he published a collection of reminiscences of his teacher Beethoven, co-written with Franz Wegeler. The symphonies, some chamber works —most of them with piano— his violin concerto and his piano concertos have been recorded, demonstrating a style which is, unsurprising due to his connection to Beethoven, somewhere between those of the Classical and early Romantic eras. Ries was born into a musical family of Bonn. Ries was the eldest son of the violinist and Archbishopric Music Director Franz Anton Ries and the brother of the violinist and composer Hubert Ries. He received piano lessons from his father and was instructed by Bernhard Romberg, who also belonged to the Bonn Hofkapelle as a cellist. At the end of 1798 he went for further training in Arnsberg to meet an organist friend of his father; a year later he went to Munich. There he worked hard as a music copyist. The French dissolved the Electoral court of Bonn and disbanded its orchestra, but in the early months of 1803 the penniless Ries managed to reach Vienna, with a letter of introduction written by the Munich-based composer Carl Cannabich on 29 December 1802. Ries was then the pupil of Ludwig van Beethoven, who had received some early instruction at Bonn from Ries's father, Franz Anton Ries. Together with Carl Czerny, Ries was the only pupil who Beethoven taught during these years. Ries feared conscription in the occupying French army (though he was blind in one eye) and so he fled Vienna in September 1805. He stayed in Bonn for a year with his family, and this is where he wrote his first piano concerto in C major, now known as Concerto no. 6 for piano and orchestra. While Ries was living in Bonn, his two piano sonatas, op. 1, dedicated to Beethoven were published by Simrock. Starting in 1807, Ries spent the next two years in Paris before returning to Vienna. Here Ries quickly expanded his catalogue of works (mainly to chamber and piano music, such as the later popular Septet op. 25). Ries had great difficulty succeeding in the capital city of the French Army and was at times so discouraged that he wanted to give up the profession of music and seek a position in the civil service. In January 1811, he left for Russia with the goal of an extended concert trip via Kassel, Hamburg, Copenhagen, Stockholm to St. Petersburg. There, he met his old teacher Bernhard Romberg, with whom he played concerts in Western Russia. He composed two piano concertos for this tour, No. 2 in E flat major, op. 42 and No. 3 in C sharp minor, op. 55. However, in the summer of 1812, the French and Napoleonic military unexpectedly advanced on Moscow. Ries left Russia and toured across Europe, landing in London in 1813. Ries spent the next eleven years in London. Johann Peter Salomon, the great friend and patron of Haydn— who had formerly played with Franz Anton Ries in the court orchestra at Bonn—included Ries regularly in his Philharmonic concert series,[b] where a review praised his "romantic wildness". After 1820 he had disagreements with his fellow directors of the Philharmonic Society; Ries was of the opinion that his works were not adequately taken into account in the programming of concerts. In 1821, he resigned his position of Director and began to befriend continental Europe with the idea of a return. On 3 May 1824 he gave his farewell concert in London, at which he dedicated a Piano Concerto. Beginning in April 1827 the Ries family moved to Frankfurt am Main. In Frankfurt the existence of a renowned Opera House attracted him. Since 1826, he had had plans to write operas, which he brought to fruition in the years 1827/28. On 15 October 1828, his first opera, The Robber Bride, was premiered in Frankfurt with great success. To the direction of the Dublin Music Festival in 1831 he used a month's stay in London, where he composed his second opera, The Sorceress (published in Germany under the title Liska or the Witch by Gyllensteen). It was premiered on 4 August 1831 at the London Royal Adelphi Theatre. His third opera was composed in 1834 (Die Nacht auf dem Libanon WoO 51), which for many years remained unperformed. In 1832/33 Ries and his wife made a several-month journey through Italy for a concert tour (which would remain his last), which led to Venice, Milan, Rome and Naples. During the trip, Ries wrote his last Piano Concerto (in G minor).

Amanda Röntgen-Maier (1853-1894)

Piano Quartet in E minor

I. Allegro 0:00
II. Andante 8:38
III. Presto con fuoco 14:37
IV. Largo espressivo - Allegro vivace - Presto 18:44

Ann-Sofi Klingberg, piano
Gregory Maytan, violin
Bernt Lysell, viola
Sara Wijk, cello

Amanda Röntgen-Maier (1853 – 1894) was a Swedish violinist and composer. She was the first female graduate in music direction from the Royal College of Music in Stockholm in 1872.

Julius Röntgen (1855-1932)

Piano Concerto No. 3 in D minor (1887)

I. Allegro 0:00
II. Allegretto con grazia 9:23
III. Romanze: Andante sostenuto 14:57
IV. Finale: Allegro non troppo vivace 24:31

Oliver Triendl, piano
Kristiansand Symphony Orchestra
Hermann Baumer, conductor

Julius Röntgen was born in Leipzig, Germany, to a family of musicians. His father, the Dutch born Engelbert Röntgen, was first violinist in the Gewandhaus orchestra in Leipzig; his mother, Pauline Klengel, was a pianist, an aunt of the renowned cellist Julius Klengel, born in 1859. Julius was a gifted child. Neither he nor his sisters attended school; he was taught music by his parents and grandparents, and other subjects by private tutors. His first piano teacher was Carl Reinecke, the director of the Gewandhaus orchestra, while his early compositions were influenced by Reinecke, but also by Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt and Johannes Brahms. In 1870, at the age of 14, Julius Röntgen visited Franz Liszt in Weimar; after playing piano for him he was invited to a soiree at Liszt's house. In Leipzig, he and his parents were part of the musical circle around Heinrich von Herzogenberg, and it was at their house that he first met Brahms. Later Röntgen moved to Munich, where he studied piano under Franz Lachner, a friend of Franz Schubert. At the age of 18 he became a professional pianist. During a concert tour through southern Germany he became acquainted with the singer Julius Stockhausen; at this time he also met a Swedish music student Amanda Maier, whom he would marry in 1880. In 1877 Röntgen had to make a decision whether to go to Vienna or Amsterdam. He chose Amsterdam, and became a piano teacher in the music school there. The aristocratic politician Alexander de Savornin Lohman, who was professor of law at the University of Amsterdam and an important figure in the cultural life of that city, was a friend of Röntgen's father, and he promised to take young Julius under his wing. Between 1878 and 1885 Brahms was a frequent visitor in Amsterdam. In 1887 Röntgen performed Brahms's second piano concerto, conducted by the composer himself. Röntgen also played an important part in establishing institutions for classical music in Amsterdam. In 1883, in association with composers Frans Coenen and Daniel de Lange, Röntgen founded the Amsterdam Conservatory. In 1884 Röntgen was heavily involved in the foundation of the Concertgebouw. Unfortunately, he was passed over as the Concertgebouw's first music director. Röntgen turned with greater energy to composing chamber music and to his work for the Conservatory. He became a renowned accompanying pianist, working for the great violinist Carl Flesch, the singer Johannes Messchaert, and the cello player Pablo Casals. Travelling with Messchaert he came to Vienna at least once a year, where he would always meet Brahms. For some years, Röntgen and his sons performed together as a piano trio. After the death of his wife Amanda in 1894, Röntgen married the gifted piano teacher Abrahamina des Amorie van der Hoeven. The children of the second marriage also became professional musicians. Röntgen's son Joachim, a violinist, founded the Röntgen String Quartet. At the end of the First World War, in 1919, Röntgen became a naturalized Dutch citizen. One of his sons was taken prisoner by the Germans during the war, while another son emigrated to the United States where he became a soldier in the US army. In the years from 1920 on Röntgen experimented with atonal music; he wrote e.g. a bi-tonal symphony in 1930. Sometimes he performed as a piano accompanist in silent screen productions with popular and folk scenes of the film-maker Dirk van der Ven in the Tuschinski cinema theatre in Amsterdam. In 1924 Röntgen retired from public life. He moved to Bilthoven, a small village near Utrecht. In 1930 Röntgen received an honorary doctorate from the University of Edinburgh, where his friend Donald Francis Tovey was professor. During this visit Tovey performed a new Röntgen symphony with the Reid Orchestra and Röntgen was the soloist in his most recent two piano concertos in the same programme. Two years after Röntgen's death, Tovey described him as "one of the greatest masters of absolute music I have ever known". After Second World War the villa Gaudeamus became the seat of the Gaudeamus society, whose aim is to promote contemporary Dutch music. Röntgen died in a hospital in Utrecht, Netherlands on September 14, 1932.

Alfredo d'Ambrosio (1871-1914)

Violin Concerto No. 2 in G minor, Op. 51

I. Allegro moderato 0:00
II. Andante moderato 11:01
III. Allegro energico 21:56

Christian Sebastianutto, violin
Orchestra Nuove Assonanze
Alan Freiles, conductor

Alfredo D'Ambrosio (1871 – 1914) was an Italian composer and violinist. He studied under Enrico Bossi at the Conservatory "San Pietro a Majella" in Naples, and later with Pablo de Sarasate in Madrid, and August Wilhelmj in London. He then settled in Nice, and devoted himself to his compositions and his work as a teacher.[1] His brother Luigi d'Ambrosio was also a violinist and later teacher of Salvatore Accardo. D'Ambrosio is the author of the opera Pia de' Tolomei, based on Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, the ballet Hersilia, two Violin Concertos, a String Quartet in C minor Op.42 (1908) and a Quintet, as well as various concert pieces for violin and piano, which had a certain popularity in the early 20th century. His 1st Violin Concerto (in B minor Op.29, dedicated to Arrigo Serato) was written from April to October 1903 and premiered on 29 October 1904. The 2nd Violin Concerto (in G minor Op.51, dedicated to Jacques Thibaud) premiered by Georges Enesco on 6 April 1913 in Paris, conducted by the composer. His best-known work is his Canzonetta Op. 6, which he recorded in 1907. More recordings of this piece were made in 1914 by Alexander Petschnikoff (1873-1948), Mischa Elman in 1921, and 1924 Toscha Seidel and Georg Kulenkampff in 1924. In addition, there is also his Serenade Op. 4 recorded in 1919 by Jascha Heifetz and by George Enescu in 1924.

Edward Joseph Collins (1886-1951)

Piano Concerto No. 2 in A minor 'Concert Piece'

Andante tranquillo - Allegro - Scherzo Diabolico: Presto - Commodo - Scherzo: Presto - Tempo Primo (Andante) - Allegro - Andante - Allegro - Tempo giusto - Meno allegro ma sempre agitato - Andante - Allegro

Leslie Stifelman, piano
Concordia Orchestra
Marin Alsop, conductor

Edward Joseph Collins (1886 – 1951) was an American pianist, conductor and composer of classical music in a neoromantic style. Collins was born in Joliet, Illinois, into an Irish family – his father was from County Meath and his mother from Belfast. From age 14, he studied with Rudolph Ganz in Chicago, and in 1906 went with Ganz to Berlin, where he studied performance and composition at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik under Max Bruch and Engelbert Humperdinck. Upon graduation, he had a successful concert piano debut in Berlin. He returned to the United States in 1912 and toured with the contralto Ernestine Schumann-Heink. He was an assistant conductor with the Century Opera Company in New York City and with the Bayreuth Festival in Germany. During World War I, Collins served in the U.S. Army (88th Division of the Intelligence Unit in France) as an interpreter and entertained the troops as pianist. From Private he rose up to the rank of Lieutenant during the war. After the war he returned to Chicago and joined 1919 the faculty of Chicago Musical College as one of the principal piano teachers. Collins married a voice student, Frieda Mayer, whose father, Oscar, owned a meatpacking company and was well to do. Collins and his wife had four children namely Dorothy Louise, Marianna Louise, Louise Joan and Edward Joseph junior. Having married into a family of wealth, they lived in the Mayer residence on Sheridan Road in Chicago. He later joined the faculty of the American Conservatory of Music. He died in Chicago, Illinois in 1951.

Fritz Volbach (1861-1940)

Symphony in B minor, Op. 33

I. Lebhaft und trotzig 0:00
II. Scherzo: Presto 10:27
III. Adagio molto 13:45
IV. Mächtig, feierlich - Lebhaft, bestimmt 26:07

Philharmonia Hungarica
Gilbert Varga, conductor

Fritz Volbach (1861 - 1940) was a German conductor , composer and musicologist. Volbach was born in 1861 in Wipperfürth. After he was a student of the Cologne Conservatory with Ferdinand Hiller for a short time, he resumed his previously abandoned school education in Bruchsal , where he also passed his high school diploma. He studied philosophy at the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn . In 1886 he became a student of the Royal Institute of Sacred Music, then continued his studies with Eduard Grell at the Academy in the Composition Department; he was probably his last pupil. During his studies in 1885, he was a member of the Academic Liedertafel Berlin in the Special House Association and the AMV Makaria Bonn. After graduation, he worked in 1887 as a teacher at the Institute of Sacred Music; He also conducted the Academic Liedertafel and a choir. In 1891 he became music director in Mainz . In 1899 he received his doctorate from the University of Bonn. In 1907 he became music director in Tübingen and was appointed professor. During the First World War Volbach founded a German symphony orchestra in occupied Belgium with Fritz Brandt among the occupiers in Brussels . From 1918 he taught at the University of Münster and was until 1925 music director and conductor of the music club of this city . In 1929 he retired. Volbach's compositional work includes, among other things, an opera, a symphony and three symphonic poems. His compositions show him as a conservative late romanticist . Some parts of the Nachlas are kept in the University Archives of the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster. His son was the art historian Wolfgang Fritz Volbach .

Andrejs Jurjāns (1856-1922)

Concerto Elegiaco in E minor for Cello and Orchestra

I. Maestoso - Allegro agitato 0:00
II. Andante 7:53
III. Allegro agitato (Tempo I) 13:00

Maris Villeruss, cello
Latvian TV & Radio Symphony Orchestra
Leonids Vigners, conductor

Andrejs Jurjāns (1856 -1922) was a Latvian composer and musicologist. He was Latvia's first classical composer, having composed instrumental pieces and cantatas. Jurjāns also studied and collected more than 6000 pieces of Latvian folklore, among them 3000 songs, which he compiled in six books, called Latvju tautas mūzikas materiāli (Materials of Latvian Folk Music). Andrejs Jurjāns was born in 1856 in Ērgļi. Active in music from a young age, Jurjāns decided to beacome a musician after participating as a choir singer in the First Latvian Song Festival in 1873. In 1875, he studied music at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, attending composition, organ and French horn classes with Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov and German organists Louis Homilius and Friedrich Homilius. In 1877, he published his first composition. From 1882 to 1916 Jurjāns taught music in the Russian Imperial Music Society Conservatory in Kharkiv, Ukraine. At the same time, he took an active part in Latvian musical life as a collector, researcher and arranger of national folk songs. His five-volume work, "Materials of the Latvian Folk Music" encompasses about 2,000 tunes. Jurjāns laid the foundation for further research in this area. Together with his brothers and musicians Juris, Pāvuls and Pēteris he regularly took part in the Latvian Song Festival as the Jurjāns' French horn quartet. Around 1910 Jurjāns' hearing became weaker and in 1916 he retired from his teaching career. Seriously ill, in 1920 he returned to Latvia, where he died in 1922.

Joseph Joachim (1831-1907)

Violin Concerto No. 2 in D minor, Op. 11 'In the Hungarian Style'

I. Allegro un poco maestoso 0:00
II. Romanze: Andante 22:03
III. Finale alla Zingara: Allegro con spirito - Presto 29:37

Christian Tetzlaff, violin
Danish National Symphony Orchestra
Thomas Dausgaard, conductor

Joseph Joachim (28 June 1831 – 15 August 1907) was a Hungarian violinist, conductor, composer and violin teacher. Joachim was born in Kittsee, near Bratislava and Eisenstadt, in what is today's Burgenland area of Austria. In 1833 his family moved to Pest, where he studied violin with Stanisław Serwaczyński, the concertmaster of the opera in Pest. In 1839, Joachim continued his studies at the Vienna Conservatory. He was taken by his cousin, Fanny Wittgenstein to live and study in Leipzig, where he became a protégé of Felix Mendelssohn. On 27 May 1844 Joachim, at age not quite 13, in his London Philharmonic debut with Mendelssohn conducting, played the solo part in Beethoven's violin concerto. This was a triumph in several respects. Despite Beethoven's recognition as one of the greatest composers, and the ranking nowadays of his violin concerto as among the greatest few, it was far from being so ranked before Joachim's performance. But Joachim was very well prepared to play Beethoven's concerto, having written his own cadenzas for it and memorized the piece. Joachim's performance helped establish the Beethoven concerto as a pinnacle of the literature and made him popular in England for the rest of his long career. Following Mendelssohn's death in 1847, Joachim stayed briefly in Leipzig, teaching at the Conservatorium and playing on the first desk of the Gewandhaus Orchestra with Ferdinand David. In 1848, Franz Liszt took up residence in Weimar, determined to re-establish the town's reputation as the Athens of Germany. There, he gathered a circle of young avant-garde disciples, vocally opposed to the conservatism of the Leipzig circle. Joachim was amongst the first of these. He served Liszt as concertmaster, and for several years enthusiastically embraced the new "psychological music," as he called it. In 1852 he moved to Hanover, at the same time dissociating himself from the musical ideals of the 'New German School' (Liszt, Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, and their followers, as defined by journalist Franz Brendel). In 1853, Joachim met the then publicly unknown 20-year-old Brahms, was highly impressed by him, and gave him a letter of recommendation to Robert Schumann. Brahms was received by Schumann and his wife Clara with great enthusiasm. After Robert's mental breakdown in 1854 and death in 1856, Joachim, Clara, and Brahms remained lifelong friends and shared musical views. Joachim's time in Hanover was his most prolific period of composition. Then and during the rest of his career, he frequently performed with Clara Schumann. On 10 May 1863 Joachim married the contralto Amalie Schneeweiss (stage name: Amalie Weiss) (1839–99). In 1866, Joachim moved to Berlin, where he was invited to help found a new department of the Royal Academy of Music. There he became the director of the Hochschule für ausübende Tonkunst, or High School for Musical Performance. In 1884, Joachim and his wife separated after he became convinced that she was having an affair with the publisher Fritz Simrock. Brahms, certain that Joachim's suspicions were groundless, wrote a sympathetic letter to Amalie, which she later produced as evidence in Joachim's divorce proceeding against her. This led to a cooling of Brahms and Joachim's friendship, which was not restored until some years later, when Brahms composed the Double Concerto in A minor for violin and cello, Op. 102, as a peace offering to his old friend. It was co-dedicated to the first performers, Joachim and cellist Robert Hausmann. In late 1895 both Brahms and Joachim were present at the opening of the new Tonhalle at Zurich, Switzerland; Brahms conducted and Joachim was assistant conductor. But in April, two years later, Joachim was to lose forever this revered friend, as Johannes Brahms died at the age of 64 at Vienna. At Meiningen, in December 1899, it was Joachim who made the speech when a statue to Brahms was unveiled. Joachim remained in Berlin until his death in 1907.

Anton Rubinstein (1829-1894)

Fantaisie for Piano and Orchestra in C Major, Op. 84

I. Allegro moderato 0:00
II. Moderato 11:38
III. Moderato assai 17:44
IV. Allegro 28:27

Joseph Banowetz, piano
Czecho-Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra
Oliver Dohnányi, conductor

Anton Grigorevich Rubinstein (1829 -1894) was a Russian pianist, composer and conductor who became a pivotal figure in Russian culture when he founded the Saint Petersburg Conservatory. He was the elder brother of Nikolai Rubinstein who founded the Moscow Conservatory. As a pianist, Rubinstein ranks amongst the great 19th-century keyboard virtuosos. He became most famous for his series of historical recitals—seven enormous, consecutive concerts covering the history of piano music. Rubinstein played this series throughout Russia and Eastern Europe and in the United States when he toured there. Although best remembered as a pianist and educator (most notably in the latter as the composition teacher of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky), Rubinstein was also a prolific composer throughout much of his life. He wrote 20 operas, the best known of which is The Demon. He also composed a large number of other works, including five piano concertos, two cello concertos, a violin concerto, six symphonies and a large number of solo piano works along with a substantial output of works for chamber ensemble. Rubinstein chose to write in an early-Romantic Germanic style and did not exploit the native characteristics of Russian music in his work until relatively late in his career, and in only a handful of compositions, including the 5th Symphony, 2nd Cello Concerto and Caprice Russe for piano and orchestra. After Rubinstein's death, his works began to lose popularity, although his piano concerti remained in the repertoire in Europe until the First World War, and his principal works have retained a toehold in the Russian concert repertoire. Over recent years, his work has been performed a little more often both in Russia and abroad, and has often met with positive criticism. Amongst his better known works are the opera The Demon, his Piano Concerto No. 4, and his Symphony No. 2, known as The Ocean.

Louis Thirion (1879-1966)

Symphony No. 2 in B minor, Op. 17

I. Tres modéré 0:00
II. Assez vite 11:56
III. Lent 17:17
IV. Animé. 28:53

Orchestra de L'ORTF
Eugène Bigot, conductor

Louis Thirion (1879-1966) was a French composer. He was born February 13, 1879 in Baccarat, the son of an organist and studied at the Nancy Conservatory first violin, then piano and organ, and finally composition under the direction of Guy Ropartz who became his mentor and with whom he remained close. Organ director of Baccarat, he was appointed, at the age of 20, professor of piano and organ at the Conservatory of Nancy. After his demobilization at the end of WW I, he took the post of interim director of the Conservatoire de Nancy to replace Guy Ropartz, who had been hired to direct the conservatory of Strasbourg, and remained there until the appointment of Alfred Bachelet in 1919. When the latter died in January 1944, the mayor of Nancy again entrusted Thirion with the post of interim director. He was also conductor of the Conservatory Concerts for the rest of the 1943-1944 season. In September 1944, he resumed his teaching duties and devoted himself fully to teaching the organ and piano until his retirement in 1949. As a student of Guy Ropartz, Louis Thirion was often presented as a disciple of César Franck, while his musical tastes were heavily influenced by Debussy , Chabrier and later by Stravinsky. He was also very close with two Lorraine composers, Florent Schmitt from Blâmont, and the Nancy -Marie Laure Maugüé . He attended the premiere of Pelleas and repeatedly demonstrated his enthusiasm for The Rite of Spring. One of the first to make Ravel's concerto work on the ground , he spoke, until his last days, of serial music, of Boulez or Stockhausen, whose musical scores he regretted not being able to read. His work as a composer covered only a short part of his life, between 1900 and 1913. In 1906, his piano sonata won the Society of Composers Prize; in 1909, his string quartet (dedicated to Florent Schmitt) was given in first hearing at the National Society, while his piano trio earned him a new award from the Society of Composers. His works were performed by great performers: Georges Enesco , Ricardo Viñes , Marguerite Long , Yvonne Astruc, Fernand Pollain, Jeanne-Marie Darré, Jean Doyen, Genevieve Joy, André Lévy, Jacques Neilz, Henriette Puig-Roget, the Pascal Quartet, the Parrenin quartet, etc. In 1909 he wrote his first symphony, which won the Cressant Prize. It was premiered in 1911 by Gabriel Pierné at the head of the Colonne Concerts. He composed three important works: a sonata for piano and violin in 1911, followed in 1912 by a sonata for cello and piano, and finally the second symphony, completed in 1913. The orchestration wasn't completed until 1919. It was premiered in 1920 at the Colonne Concerts, under the direction of Gabriel Pierné. Other conductors who later directed his symphonies include Alfred Bachelet, Eugene Bigot, Jean Clergue, and Marcel Dautremer. Unfortunately, even though Thirion's reputation grew in France and abroad, the war of 1914 impacted it severely: he was mobilized during the entire war; moreover, his house in Baccarat burned in the city fire caused by the Germans, resulting in the loss of almost all his manuscripts. He lost his wife in 1920 and ended up with two young dependent children. His health strongly shaken, completely discouraged, he then decided not to continue as a composer. In 1958, he was elected the only corresponding member of the Institut de France. There he joined Florent Schmitt who had proposed his candidacy, as well as Henri Büsser, Paul Paray, Jacques Ibert and Louis Aubert. From a first marriage, Louis Thirion had two children, including the writer and surrealist André Thirion . A late remarriage with pianist Micheline Moris-Thirion, resulted in a son, Louis-Claude Thirion, also a pianist.

Ferdinand Hiller (1811-1885)

Piano Quintet in G Major, Op. 156 (1873)

I. Allegro con anima 0:00
II. Adagio espressivo 12:00
III. Intermezzo: Allegretto leggiero 22:17
IV. Finale: Allegro con molto fuoco 27:04

Oliver Triendl, piano
The Minguet String Quartet (Ulrich Isfort - 1st Violin, Annette Reisinger - 2nd Violin, Aroa Sorin - Viola, Matthias Diener - Cello

Ferdinand Hiller was born to a wealthy Jewish family in Frankfurt am Main, where his father Justus (originally Isaac Hildesheim, a name that he changed late in the 18th century to conceal his Jewish origins) was a merchant in English textiles – a business eventually continued by Ferdinand’s brother Joseph. Hiller’s talent was discovered early and he was taught piano by the leading Frankfurt musician Alois Schmitt, violin by Jörg Hofmann, and harmony and counterpoint by Georg Jacob Vollweiler; at 10 he performed a Mozart concerto in public; and two years later, he produced his first composition. In 1822, the 13-year old Felix Mendelssohn entered his life. The Mendelssohn family was at that time staying briefly in Frankfurt and the young Hiller visited them where he was immensely impressed by the playing of Felix (and even more so by that of his sister Fanny Mendelssohn). When their acquaintance was renewed in 1825 the two boys found an immediate close friendship, which was to last until 1843. Hiller tactfully describes their falling out as arising from "social, and not from personal susceptibilities." But in fact it seems to have been more to do with Hiller’s succession to Mendelssohn as director of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra in 1843. From 1825 to 1827, Hiller was a pupil of Johann Nepomuk Hummel in Weimar; while he was with Hummel at Beethoven’s deathbed, Hiller secured a lock of Beethoven's hair. This lock is now at the San Jose State University, after having been sold at Sotheby’s in 1994. While in Vienna for Beethoven's obsequies, Hiller and Hummel heard Johann Michael Vogl and Franz Schubert perform Schubert's Winterreise. Hiller wrote that his master was so moved that tears fell from his eyes. From 1828 to 1835, Hiller based himself in Paris, where he was engaged as teacher of composition at Choron's School of Music. He eventually gave up his position so that he might better equip himself as a pianist and composer. He spent time in Italy, hoping that this would assist him to write a successful opera (a hope which was never fulfilled). In 1836, he was in Frankfurt devoting himself to composition. His abilities were recognized, and although but 25, he was asked to act as conductor of the Cäcilienverein during the illness of its conductor Schelble. In addition to Mendelssohn, he attracted the attention of Rossini who assisted him to launch his first opera, Romilda (which was a failure), at Milan. Mendelssohn obtained for Hiller an entrée to the Gewandhaus, and afforded an opportunity for the public presentation of Hiller's oratorio Die Zerstörung Jerusalems (The destruction of Jerusalem, 1840). After a year of study in Church music at Rome, Hiller returned to Leipzig, and during the season of 1843-44 conducted the Gewandhaus concerts. By this time his position in the musical world was established, and honors and appointments were showered upon him. In 1845 Robert Schumann dedicated to Hiller his piano concerto. Hiller became municipal kapellmeister of Düsseldorf in 1847, and in 1850 received a similar appointment at Cologne, where he founded Cologne Conservatoire that year and remained as Kapellmeister until 1884. During this time, he was twelve times festival director of the Lower Rhenish Music Festival, and conducted the Gürzenich concerts. He worked in Dresden as well. Thus he played a leading part in Germany's musical life. And he was conductor at the Italian Opera in Paris during the season of 1852-53. During Hiller’s long reign in Cologne, which earned him a ‘von’ to precede his surname, his star pupil was Max Bruch, the composer of the cello elegy Kol Nidrei, based on the synagogue hymn sung at Yom Kippur. Bruch was not Jewish; his knowledge of the theme of Kol Nidrei came through Hiller, who introduced him to the Berlin chazan, Lichtenstein. Hiller’s regime at Cologne was strongly marked by his conservative tastes, which he attempted to prolong by recommending, as his successor in 1884, either Brahms or Bruch. The appointment went however to a "modernist", Franz Wüllner, who, according to Grove "initiated his term [...] with concerts of works by Wagner, Liszt and Richard Strauss, all of whom Hiller had avoided." Hiller was elected a member of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Berlin, in 1849, and in 1868 received the title of doctor from the University of Bonn. He died in Cologne.

Ernest John (E.J.) Moeran (1894-1950)

Serenade for Orchestra in G Major

I. Prologue: Allegro 0:00
II. Intermezzo: Allegretto 4:05
III. Air: Lento, ma non troppo 7:24
IV. Galop: Presto 10:12
V. Minuet: Tempo di minuetto 12:28
VI. Forlana: Andante con moto 16:25
VII. Rigadoon: 20:25
VIII. Epilogue: Allegro un poco maestoso 22:12

The Ulster Orchestra
Vernon Handley, conductor

Ernest John Moeran (1894 – 1950) was an English composer who had strong associations with Ireland (his father was Irish, he spent much of his life there, and he died there). Moeran was born in Heston (now in the London Borough of Hounslow), the son of the Rev Joseph William Wright Moeran, an Irish-born clergyman, and his wife Ada Esther (born Whall). The family moved around for several years as his father was appointed to various parishes but they eventually settled in Bacton, on the coast of Norfolk. Moeran studied the violin and the piano as a child. He was educated from an early age at home, by a governess. At the age of ten, he was sent to Suffield Park Preparatory School in Cromer, North Norfolk. In 1908, he was enrolled at Uppingham School where he spent the next five years. He was taught music by the director Robert Sterndale Bennett (grandson of Sir William Sterndale Bennett), who greatly encouraged his talents. On leaving Uppingham in 1913, he studied piano and composition at the Royal College of Music with Charles Villiers Stanford. He was also a member of the prestigious Oxford & Cambridge Musical Club. When war broke out Moeran enlisted in the Norfolk Regiment, in which he was later commissioned. In 1917 Moeran went to France, where he was attached to the West Yorkshire Regiment, and wounded at Bullecourt on 3 May. His army records refer to a 'small gunshot wound' to the side of the neck, and a piece of shrapnel in his back, later removed. By the middle of August Moeran was declared 'free from any inconveniences' by a medical board and seconded to the Bedfordshire Regiment, at this time on garrison duty in Ireland around Boyle and County Roscommon. It was here that Moeran came to be bewitched by the Irish landscape which would later inform many of his best compositions. In October 1918 he tried out for the newly formed Royal Air Force, but after two months was returned to a reserve battalion of the Norfolk Regiment, and discharged in January 1919. After the war he returned for a few months to Uppingham School, where he was employed as a teacher of music. This role did not satisfy him and he returned to the Royal College of Music to resume his composition studies, now with John Ireland, who had been a pupil of Moeran's earlier teacher Charles Villiers Stanford. His first mature compositions, songs and chamber music, date from this time. He also began collecting and arranging folk music of Norfolk and other regions. He collected about 150 folk songs in Norfolk and Suffolk. His preferred method was to sit in a country pub and wait until an old man started singing. He noted the song down and then asked for more. According to the biography The Music of E. J. Moeran by Geoffrey Self (1986), he spent time living with gypsies, but no further details are available. He spent some time after the war living at Kington, Herefordshire. By the mid-1920s, Moeran had become close friends with Peter Warlock and they lived for some years in Eynsford, Kent, notorious among the locals for their frequent drunken revelry. For the rest of his life, Moeran had problems with alcohol, later joined by mental instability. After Warlock's death in 1930, Moeran became interested in his Irish roots and began spending much of his time in Kenmare, County Kerry. As a person, E. J. Moeran was greatly influenced by a number of people. However, it was the time spent with Peter Warlock in Eynsford that had the greatest impact on his life. While Warlock was seemingly capable of drinking alcohol to excess without any apparent long-term effects, Moeran developed a dependency which handicapped him for the remainder of his life. His later problems have been attributed to his war wound to the head, but this is incorrect. By 1930, Moeran had become an alcoholic. He married the cellist Peers Coetmore on 26 July 1945. Although the marriage was not entirely happy, it inspired two of Moeran's finest late works, the Cello Concerto and Cello Sonata. He died suddenly in 1950, probably from a cerebral haemorrhage, in Kenmare at the age of 55. He was found in the Kenmare River and it was at first assumed he had drowned. However, an inquest later established that he had died before falling into the water.

Carl Reinecke (1824-1910)

Cello Concerto in D minor, Op. 82

I. Allegro moderato 0:00
II. Romanza: Andante con moto 14:06
III. Finale: Allegro vivace 21:00

Michael Samis, cello
Gateway Chamber Orchestra
Gregory Wolynec, conductor

Carl Heinrich Carsten Reinecke (23 June 1824 – 10 March 1910) was a German composer, conductor, and pianist. Hw was born in Altona; technically he was born a Dane, as until 1864 the town was under Danish rule. He received all his musical instruction from his father, (Johann Peter) Rudolf Reinecke (22 November 1795 – 14 August 1883), a music teacher and writer on musical subjects. Carl first devoted himself to violin-playing, but later on turned his attention to the piano. He began to compose at the age of seven, and his first public appearance as a pianist was when he was twelve years old. At the age of 19, he undertook his first concert tour as a pianist in 1843, through Denmark and Sweden, after which he lived for a long time in Leipzig, where he studied under Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann and Franz Liszt; he entered into friendly relations with the former two. After the stay in Leipzig, Reinecke went on tour with Königslöw and Wilhelm Joseph von Wasielewski (later Schumann's biographer), in North Germany and Denmark. In 1846, Reinecke was appointed Court Pianist for Christian VIII in Copenhagen. There he remained until 1848, when he resigned and went to Paris. Overall he wrote four concertos for his instrument (and many cadenzas for others' works, including a large set published as his Opus 87), as well as concertos for violin, cello, harp and flute. In the winter of 1850/51, Carl Schurz reports attending weekly “musical evenings” in Paris where Reinecke was in attendance. In 1851, Reinecke became a professor at the Cologne Conservatory. In ensuing years he was appointed musical director at Barmen, and became the academic, musical director and conductor of the Singakademie at Breslau. In 1860, Reinecke was appointed director of the Gewandhaus Orchestra concerts in Leipzig, and professor of composition and piano at the Conservatorium. He led the orchestra for more than three decades, until 1895. He conducted premieres such as the full seven-movement version of Brahms's A German Requiem (1869). In 1865 the Gewandhaus-Quartett premiered Brahms' piano quintet, and in 1892 his D major string quartet. Reinecke is best known for his flute sonata "Undine", but he is also remembered as one of the most influential and versatile musicians of his time. He served as a teacher for 35 years, until his retirement in 1902. His students included Edvard Grieg, Basil Harwood, Charles Villiers Stanford, Christian Sinding, Leoš Janáček, Constanta Erbiceanu, Isaac Albéniz, August Max Fiedler, Walter Niemann, Johan Svendsen, Richard Franck, Felix Weingartner, Max Bruch, Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis, Ernest Hutcheson, Felix Fox, August Winding and many others. After retirement from the conservatory, Reinecke devoted his time to composition, resulting in almost three hundred published works. He wrote several operas (none of which are performed today) including König Manfred. During this time, he frequently made concert tours to England and elsewhere. His piano playing belonged to a school in which grace and neatness were characteristic, and at one time he was probably unrivalled as a Mozart player and an accompanist. In 1904 at the age of 80, he made recordings of seven works playing on piano roll for the Welte-Mignon company, making him the earliest-born pianist to have his playing preserved in any format. He subsequently made a further 14 for the Aeolian Company's "Autograph Metrostyle" piano roll visual marking system and an additional 20 for the Hupfeld DEA reproducing piano roll system. He died at 85 in Leipzig.

Eduard Lassen (1830-1904)

Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 87

I. Allegro moderato 0:00
II. Andante cantabile 13:11
III. Allegro risoluto e capriccioso 25:47

Linus Roth, violin
Anhaltische Philharmonie Dessau
Markus L. Frank, conductor

Eduard Lassen (1830 - 1904) was a Belgian-Danish composer and conductor. Although of Danish birth, he spent most of his career working as the music director at the court in Weimar. A moderately prolific composer, Lassen produced music in a variety of genres including operas, symphonic works, piano works, lieder, and choral works among others. His most successful pieces were his fine vocal art songs for solo voice and piano which often used elements of German and Belgian folk music. He was born in Copenhagen, but was taken as a child to Brussels and educated at the Brussels Conservatory where he earned prizes for piano (1844) and composition (1847). He won the Prix de Rome in 1851, which provided him with the opportunity to make a long tour in Germany and Italy. While touring he met Louis Spohr and Franz Liszt and composed much of his first opera Le roi Edgard. After returning to Brussels in 1855, Lassen actively sought to get his opera performed but was unable to do so. Liszt, however, agreed to produce the opera at the Grossherzogliches Theater (now the Staatskapelle Weimar) and the work premiered in Weimar in 1857. The following year, Liszt recommended Lassen as his replacement as the court music director in Weimar, which involved conducting both the opera and the court orchestra. He happily took the job and remained in that role until his retirement in 1895. While there he conducted several world premieres including the first performance of Camille Saint-Saëns's Samson et Dalila in 1877. He also conducted the first performance in Weimar, and the first outside Munich, of Wagner's Tristan und Isolde (1874). He remained in Weimar after his retirement and died there in 1904, shortly after receiving an honorary doctorate from the University of Jena.

Theodor Döhler (1814-1856)

Piano Concerto in A Major, Op. 7

I. Maestoso 0:00
II. Adagio 13:43
III. Allegretto 17:52

Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra
Howard Shelley, piano/conductor

Baron Theodor Döhler (1814 – 1856) was a German composer and a notable piano virtuoso of the Romantic period. He studied under Julius Benedict, Carl Czerny, and Simon Sechter. Döhler was born in Naples, where his father (d. 1843 in Lucca) lived and worked as Kapellmeister. Döhler was a child prodigy and received his first musical education in Naples from the conductor Julius Benedict. He began performing in public concerts there at the age of 13. In 1827, he moved to Lucca when his father received a new appointment there. From 1829 to 1834 Döhler lived in Vienna, where he studied piano under Carl Czerny. At the same time, he studied composition with Simon Sechter. He appeared on the scene in 1838, when Liszt in Vienna and Thalberg were again in Paris. In 1846, Döhler's patron, the Duke of Lucca, elevated Döhler to the rank of Baron. Now a member of the nobility, Döhler was able to marry a Russian Princess, Countess Elise Sheremeteff in that year. Following this, Döhler gave up public performance and settled for a while in Moscow. In 1848 he moved back to Naples where he composed piano pieces and one opera, Tancreda, which was first produced in 1880, 24 years after his death, which occurred in Florence in 1856.

Ferdinand Ries (1784-1838)

Symphony No. 2 in C minor, Op. 80

I. Allegro ma non troppo 0:00
II. Andantino 8:36
III. Menuetto: Allegretto 14:50
IV. Finale: Allegro ma non troppo 20:14

Zurich Chamber Orchestra
Howard Griffiths, conductor

Ferdinand Ries (28 November 1784 [baptised] – 13 January 1838) was a German composer. Ries was a friend, pupil and secretary of Ludwig van Beethoven. He composed eight symphonies, a violin concerto, eight piano concertos, three operas, and numerous other works in many genres, including 26 string quartets. In 1838 he published a collection of reminiscences of his teacher Beethoven, co-written with Franz Wegeler. The symphonies, some chamber works —most of them with piano— his violin concerto and his piano concertos have been recorded, demonstrating a style which is, unsurprising due to his connection to Beethoven, somewhere between those of the Classical and early Romantic eras. Ries was born into a musical family of Bonn. Ries was the eldest son of the violinist and Archbishopric Music Director Franz Anton Ries and the brother of the violinist and composer Hubert Ries. He received piano lessons from his father and was instructed by Bernhard Romberg, who also belonged to the Bonn Hofkapelle as a cellist. At the end of 1798 he went for further training in Arnsberg to meet an organist friend of his father; a year later he went to Munich. There he worked hard as a music copyist. The French dissolved the Electoral court of Bonn and disbanded its orchestra, but in the early months of 1803 the penniless Ries managed to reach Vienna, with a letter of introduction written by the Munich-based composer Carl Cannabich on 29 December 1802. Ries was then the pupil of Ludwig van Beethoven, who had received some early instruction at Bonn from Ries's father, Franz Anton Ries. Together with Carl Czerny, Ries was the only pupil who Beethoven taught during these years. Ries feared conscription in the occupying French army (though he was blind in one eye) and so he fled Vienna in September 1805. He stayed in Bonn for a year with his family, and this is where he wrote his first piano concerto in C major, now known as Concerto no. 6 for piano and orchestra. While Ries was living in Bonn, his two piano sonatas, op. 1, dedicated to Beethoven were published by Simrock. Starting in 1807, Ries spent the next two years in Paris before returning to Vienna. Here Ries quickly expanded his catalogue of works (mainly to chamber and piano music, such as the later popular Septet op. 25). Ries had great difficulty succeeding in the capital city of the French Army and was at times so discouraged that he wanted to give up the profession of music and seek a position in the civil service. In January 1811, he left for Russia with the goal of an extended concert trip via Kassel, Hamburg, Copenhagen, Stockholm to St. Petersburg. There, he met his old teacher Bernhard Romberg, with whom he played concerts in Western Russia. He composed two piano concertos for this tour, No. 2 in E flat major, op. 42 and No. 3 in C sharp minor, op. 55. However, in the summer of 1812, the French and Napoleonic military unexpectedly advanced on Moscow. Ries left Russia and toured across Europe, landing in London in 1813. Ries spent the next eleven years in London. Johann Peter Salomon, the great friend and patron of Haydn— who had formerly played with Franz Anton Ries in the court orchestra at Bonn—included Ries regularly in his Philharmonic concert series,[b] where a review praised his "romantic wildness". After 1820 he had disagreements with his fellow directors of the Philharmonic Society; Ries was of the opinion that his works were not adequately taken into account in the programming of concerts. In 1821, he resigned his position of Director and began to befriend continental Europe with the idea of a return. On 3 May 1824 he gave his farewell concert in London, at which he dedicated a Piano Concerto. Beginning in April 1827 the Ries family moved to Frankfurt am Main. In Frankfurt the existence of a renowned Opera House attracted him. Since 1826, he had had plans to write operas, which he brought to fruition in the years 1827/28. On 15 October 1828, his first opera, The Robber Bride, was premiered in Frankfurt with great success. To the direction of the Dublin Music Festival in 1831 he used a month's stay in London, where he composed his second opera, The Sorceress (published in Germany under the title Liska or the Witch by Gyllensteen). It was premiered on 4 August 1831 at the London Royal Adelphi Theatre. His third opera was composed in 1834 (Die Nacht auf dem Libanon WoO 51), which for many years remained unperformed. In 1832/33 Ries and his wife made a several-month journey through Italy for a concert tour (which would remain his last), which led to Venice, Milan, Rome and Naples. During the trip, Ries wrote his last Piano Concerto (in G minor).

Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari (1876-1948)

Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 26

I. Fantasia: Molto tranquillo - piu mosso (Andante animato) - Allegro - Vivace 0:00
II. Romanze: Adagio 11:21
III. Improviso: Agitato, con passione 20:01
IV. Rondo-Finale: Allegro assai, poi sempre più animato 24:55

Ulf Hoelscher, violin
Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra
Alun Francis, conductor

Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari (1876 - 1948) as an Italian composer and teacher. He is best known for his comic operas such as Il segreto di Susanna (1909). A number of his works were based on plays by Carlo Goldoni, including Le donne curiose (1903), I quatro rusteghi (1906) and Il campiello (1936). Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari was born in Venice in 1876, the son of German painter August Wolf and Emilia Ferrari, from Venice. He added his mother's maiden-name, Ferrari, to his surname in 1895. Although he studied piano from an early age, music was not the primary passion of his young life. As a teenager Wolf-Ferrari wanted to be a painter like his father; he studied intensively in Venice and Rome and traveled abroad to study in Munich. It was there that he decided to concentrate instead on music, taking lessons from Josef Rheinberger. He enrolled at the Munich conservatory and began taking counterpoint and composition classes. These initially casual music classes eventually completely eclipsed his art studies, and music took over Wolf-Ferrari's life. He wrote his first works in the 1890s. At age 19, Wolf-Ferrari left the conservatory and traveled home to Venice. There he worked as a choral conductor, married, had a son called Federico Wolf-Ferrari, and met both Arrigo Boito and Verdi. In 1900, having failed to have two previous efforts published, Wolf-Ferrari saw the first performance of one of his operas, Cenerentola, based on the story of Cinderella. The opera was a failure in Italy, and the humiliated young composer moved back to Munich. German audiences would prove more appreciative of his work; a revised version of Cenerentola was a hit in Bremen in 1902, while the cantata La vita nuova brought the young composer international fame. Wolf-Ferrari now began transforming the wild and witty farces of the 18th-century Venetian playwright Carlo Goldoni into comic operas. The resulting works were musically eclectic, melodic, and utterly hilarious; every single one became an international success. In fact, until the outbreak of World War I, Wolf-Ferrari's operas were among the most performed in the world. In 1902 he became professor of composition and director of the Liceo Benedetto Marcello. In 1911 Wolf-Ferrari tried his hand at full-blooded Verismo with I gioielli della Madonna; a story of passion, sacrilege and madness. It was quite popular in its day and for a period after, especially in Chicago, where the great Polish soprano Rosa Raisa made it a celebrated vehicle. Maria Jeritza (and, later, Florence Easton) triumphed in it at the Metropolitan Opera, in an all-out spectacular production in 1926. World War I, however, was a nightmare for Wolf-Ferrari. The young composer, who had been dividing his time between Munich and Venice, suddenly found his two countries at war with each other. With the outbreak of the War, he moved to Zurich and composed much less, though he still wrote another comedy, Gli amanti sposi (1916). A new melancholy vein appeared in his post-war work; his operas grew darker and more emotionally complex. He did not really pick up his rate of output until the 1920s, when he wrote Das Himmelskleid (1925) and Sly (1927), the latter based on William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. In 1939 he became professor of composition at the Mozarteum in Salzburg. In 1946 he moved again to Zürich before returning to his home city of Venice. He died in Venice at Palazzo Malipiero and is buried in the Venetian cemetery Island of San Michele.

Carl Czerny (1791-1857)

Piano Concerto No. 2 in E-flat Major "Grand Concerto"

I. Adagio - Molto allegro vivace con brio 0:00
II. Andante grazioso 20:51
III. Rondo finale: Allegro assai 32:12

Rosemary Tuck, piano
English Chamber Orchestra
Richard Bonynge, conductor

Carl Czerny ( 1791 – 1857) was an Austrian composer, teacher, and pianist of Czech origin whose vast musical production amounted to over a thousand works. His books of studies for the piano are still widely used in piano teaching. Czerny was born in Vienna (Leopoldstadt) and was baptized in St. Leopold parish. His parents were of Czech origin; his mother was Moravian. His parents spoke the Czech language with him. Czerny came from a musical family: his grandfather was a violinist at Nymburk, near Prague, and his father, Wenzel, was an oboist, organist and pianist. When Czerny was six months old, his father took a job as a piano teacher at a Polish manor and the family moved to Poland, where they lived until the third partition of Poland prompted the family to return to Vienna in 1795. A child prodigy, Czerny began playing piano at age three and composing at age seven. His first piano teacher was his father, who taught him mainly Bach, Haydn and Mozart. He began performing piano recitals in his parents' home. Czerny made his first public performance in 1800 playing Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 24 in C minor. In 1801, Wenzel Krumpholz, a Czech composer and violinist, scheduled a presentation for Czerny at the home of Ludwig van Beethoven. Beethoven asked Czerny to play his Pathétique Sonata and Adelaide. Beethoven was impressed with the 10-year-old and accepted him as a pupil. Czerny remained under Beethoven's tutelage until 1804 and sporadically thereafter. He particularly admired Beethoven's facility at improvisation, his expertise at fingering, the rapidity of his scales and trills, and his restrained demeanour while performing. Czerny's autobiography and letters give many important references to Beethoven during this period. Czerny was the first to report symptoms of Beethoven's deafness, years before the matter became public: "I also noticed with that visual quickness peculiar to children that he had cotton which seemed to have been steeped in a yellowish liquid, in his ears." Czerny was selected by Beethoven for the premiere of the latter's Piano Concerto No. 1 in 1806 and, at the age of 21, in February 1812, Czerny gave the Vienna premiere of Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 5, "Emperor". Czerny wrote that his musical memory enabled him to play all the Beethoven works by heart without exception and, during the years 1804–1805, he used to play these works in this manner at Prince Lichnowsky's palace once or twice a week, with the Prince calling out only the desired opus numbers. Czerny maintained a relationship with Beethoven throughout his life, and also gave piano lessons to Beethoven's nephew Carl. At the age of fifteen, Czerny began a very successful teaching career. Basing his method on the teaching of Beethoven and Muzio Clementi, Czerny taught up to twelve lessons a day in the homes of Viennese nobility. His 'star' pupils included Theodor Döhler, Stephen Heller, Sigismond Thalberg, Leopoldine Blahetka and Ninette de Belleville. Franz Liszt became Czerny's most famous pupil. He trained the child with the works of Beethoven, Clementi, Ignaz Moscheles and Johann Sebastian Bach. The Liszt family lived in the same street in Vienna as Czerny, who was so impressed by the boy that he taught him free of charge. Liszt was later to repay this confidence by introducing the music of Czerny at many of his Paris recitals. Shortly before Liszt's Vienna concert of 13 April 1823 (his final concert of that season), Czerny arranged, with some difficulty (as Beethoven increasingly disliked child prodigies) the introduction of Liszt to Beethoven. Beethoven was sufficiently impressed with the young Liszt to give him a kiss on the forehead. Liszt remained close to Czerny, and in 1852 his Études d'exécution transcendente were published with a dedication to Czerny. Czerny left Vienna only to make trips to Italy, France (in 1837, when he was assisted by Liszt) and England. After 1840, Czerny devoted himself exclusively to composition. He wrote a large number of piano solo exercises for the development of the pianistic technique (Gradus ad Parnassum), designed to cover from the first lessons for children up to the needs of the most advanced virtuoso. Czerny died in Vienna at the age of 66. He never married and had no near relatives. His large fortune he willed to charities (including an institution for the deaf), his housekeeper and the Society of Friends of Music in Vienna, after making provision for the performance of a Requiem mass in his memory.

Heinrich Hofmann (1842-1902)

'Frithjof' Symphony in E-flat Major, Op. 22

I. Frithjof und Ingeborge: Allegro con fuoco 0:00
II. Ingeborgs Klage: Adagio, ma non troppo 11:56
III. Lichtelfen und Reifriesen (Intermezzo): Allegro moderato 22:!4
IV. Frithjofs Rückkehr: Adagio assai - Allegro - Allegro vivace - Maestoso - Più lento 30:00

Philharmonisches Orchester Altenburg-Gera
Eric Solen, conductor

Heinrich Karl Johann Hofmann (1842 – 1902) was a German composer and pianist. He was a pupil of Theodor Kullak, Eduard Grell, Siegfried Dehn and Richard Wüerst. His Frithjof Symphony (1874), a musical realization of the legend Friðþjófs saga hins frœkna, was one of the most frequently performed orchestral works in Germany during the late 19th century. In addition to orchestral music, he also wrote several operas, some lieder, choral music, and works for solo piano. After his death, his music fell largely into obscurity.

Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864)

Overture to the opera Le Prophète

New Zealand Symphony Orchestra
Darrel Ang, conductor

Giacomo Meyerbeer[n (1791 – 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish birth, "the most frequently performed opera composer during the nineteenth century, linking Mozart and Wagner". With his 1831 opera Robert le diable and its successors, he gave the genre of grand opera 'decisive character'. Meyerbeer's grand opera style was achieved by his merging of German orchestra style with Italian vocal tradition. These were employed in the context of sensational and melodramatic libretti created by Eugène Scribe and were enhanced by the up-to-date theatre technology of the Paris Opéra. They set a standard which helped to maintain Paris as the opera capital of the nineteenth century. Born to a very wealthy Berlin family, Meyerbeer began his musical career as a pianist but soon decided to devote himself to opera, spending several years in Italy studying and composing. His 1824 opera Il crociato in Egitto was the first to bring him Europe-wide reputation, but it was Robert le diable (1831) which raised his status to great celebrity. His public career, lasting from then until his death, during which he remained a dominating figure in the world of opera, was summarized by his contemporary Hector Berlioz, who claimed that he 'has not only the luck to be talented, but the talent to be lucky.'[3] He was at his peak with his operas Les Huguenots (1836) and Le prophète (1849); his last opera (L'Africaine) was performed posthumously. His operas made him the most frequently performed composer at the world's leading opera houses in the nineteenth century. At the same time as his successes in Paris, Meyerbeer, as a Prussian Court Kapellmeister (Director of Music) from 1832, and from 1843 as Prussian General Music Director, was also influential in opera in Berlin and throughout Germany. He was an early supporter of Richard Wagner, enabling the first production of the latter's opera Rienzi. He was commissioned to write the patriotic opera Ein Feldlager in Schlesien to celebrate the reopening of the Berlin Royal Opera House in 1844, and he wrote music for certain Prussian state occasions. Apart from around 50 songs, Meyerbeer wrote little except for the stage. The critical assaults of Wagner and his supporters, especially after Meyerbeer’s death, led to a decline in the popularity of his works; his operas were suppressed by the Nazi regime in Germany, and were neglected by opera houses through most of the twentieth century. In the 21st century, however, the composer's major French grand operas have begun to reappear in the repertory of numerous European opera houses. Le prophète (The Prophet) is a grand opera in five acts by Giacomo Meyerbeer. The French-language libretto was by Eugène Scribe and Émile Deschamps, after passages from the Essay on the Manners and Spirit of Nations by Voltaire. The plot is based on the life of John of Leiden, Anabaptist leader and self-proclaimed "King of Münster" in the 16th century. Meyerbeer originally wrote a long overture for the opera which was cut during rehearsals, along with various other sections of the work, due to the excessive length of the opera itself. For over a century, the overture was thought to survive only in piano arrangements made at Meyerbeer's request by Charles-Valentin Alkan, but Meyerbeer's manuscript full score was rediscovered in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris in the early 1990s, the original parts were discovered in the archives of the Paris Opèra shortly thereafter, and a newly edited edition was published in 2010.

Richard Franck (1858-1938)

Piano Trio No. 2 in E-flat Major, Op. 32

I. Allegro moderato 0:00
II. Adagio 11:46
III. Scherzo: Allegro non troppo 20:40
IV. Finale: Allegro 27:03

Bernhard Fograscher, piano
Christoph Schickedanz, violin
Thomas Blees, cello

Richard Franck (1858 – 1938) was a German pianist, composer and teacher. He was born in Cologne, the son of the German composer, pianist and teacher Eduard Franck. His father, who had studied with Felix Mendelssohn and knew the value of good instruction, sent Richard to the Leipzig Conservatory, where he studied with two of the leading teachers of the day, Carl Reinecke and Salomon Jadassohn. During the course of a long career, Franck held teaching positions at conservatories in both Germany (Kassel, Berlin, Heidelberg) and in Switzerland (Basle). Although he did not reach the front rank amongst his contemporaries, he was nevertheless well respected as a concert artist and as a composer. His conservative style was influenced by Reinecke and by his friend, the Swiss composer Hans Huber (1852–1921). Franck was firmly in the tradition of Mendelssohn and Schumann though it's clear that he was not immune from the influence of Wagner, Grieg and Reger also. Critics who were familiar with his compositions and his piano playing regularly lavished praised upon them. For example, the Schweizerische Musikzeitung (Swiss Musical Journal), writing about his First Piano Trio, Op. 20, wrote: "Powerful and full-sounding energy is shown in many works, not least in [Richard Franck's] Op.20 Piano Trio, which is a magnificent, significant composition, fresh in invention, firm and secure in its development, and mature in its expression." The bulk of Franck's compositions are for solo piano; however, he also wrote orchestral and vocal compositions, as well as a considerable amount of chamber music. Though he and his music have been long forgotten, as of late, his music has been rediscovered and is in the process of being revived. His piano trios, piano quartets and four sonatas have all been recently recorded on Audite, a selection of orchestra works on Sterling. Early in 2007, Edition Silvertrust republished the parts to his Op. 20 Piano Trio, the first in a series of chamber works to be released.

Mieczyslaw Weinberg (1919-1996)

Cello Concerto in C minor, Op. 43

I. Adagio 0:00
II. Moderato - Lento 8:46
III. Allegro - Cadenza - L'istesso tempo, molto appassionato - Andante - Allegro - Andante 14:14
IV. Allegro - Adagio - Meno mosso 23:49

Nicolas Altstaedt, cello
Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester Berlin
Michal Nesterowicz, conductor

Mieczyslaw Weinberg was born on 8 December 1919 to a Jewish family in Warsaw. His father, Shmil (Szmuel or Samuil Moiseyevich) Weinberg (1882–1943, Russian), a well-known conductor and composer of the Yiddish theater, moved to Warsaw from Kishinev in 1916 and worked as a violinist and conductor for the Yiddish theatre Scala in Warsaw, where the future composer joined him as pianist at the age of 10 and later as a musical director of several performances. His mother, Sonia Wajnberg (née Sura-Dwojra Sztern, 1888–1943), born in Odessa, was an actress in several Yiddish theater companies in Warsaw and Lodz. The family had already been the victim of anti-semitic violence in Bessarabia— some members of his family were killed during the Kishinev pogrom. One of the composer's cousins (a son of his father's sister Khaya Vaynberg) - Isay Abramovich Mishne - was the secretary of the Military Revolutionary Committee of the Baku Soviet commune and was executed in 1918 along with the other 26 Baku Commissars. Weinberg entered the Warsaw Conservatory, studying piano, at the age of twelve, and graduated in 1939. Two works (his first string quartet and a berceuse for piano) were composed before he fled to the Soviet Union at the outbreak of war. His parents and younger sister Esther remained behind, were interned at the Lodz ghetto and perished in the Trawniki concentration camp. He settled in Minsk, where he studied composition for the first time at the Conservatory there. At the outbreak of the World War II on the Soviet territory, Weinberg was evacuated to Tashkent (Central Asia), where he wrote works for the opera, as well as met and married Solomon Mikhoels' daughter Natalia Vovsi. There he also met Dmitri Shostakovich who was impressed by his talent and became his close friend. Meeting Shostakovich had a profound effect on the younger man, who said later that, "It was as if I had been born anew". In 1943, he moved to Moscow at Shostakovich's urging. Weinberg's works were not banned during the Zhdanovshchina of 1948, but he was almost entirely ignored by the Soviet musical establishment; for a time he could make a living only by composing for the theatre and circus. On 13 January 1948 Weinberg's father-in-law Mikhoels was assassinated in Minsk on Stalin's orders; shortly after Mikhoels's murder, Soviet agents began following Weinberg. In February 1953, he was arrested on charges of "Jewish bourgeois nationalism" in relation to the murder of his father-in-law as a part of the so-called "Doctors' plot": Shostakovich wrote to Lavrenti Beria to intercede on Weinberg's behalf, as well as agreeing to look after Weinberg's daughter if his wife were also arrested. In the event, he was saved by Stalin's death the following month, and he was officially rehabilitated shortly afterwards. Thereafter Weinberg continued to live in Moscow, composing and performing as a pianist. He and Shostakovich lived near to one another, sharing ideas on a daily basis. Besides the admiration which Shostakovich frequently expressed for Weinberg's works, they were taken up by some of Russia's foremost performers and conductors, including Emil Gilels, Leonid Kogan, Kirill Kondrashin, Mstislav Rostropovich, Kurt Sanderling, and Thomas Sanderling. Towards the end of his life, Weinberg suffered from Crohn's disease and remained housebound for the last three years, although he continued to compose. It has been claimed that he converted to Orthodox Christianity less than two months before his death in Moscow (on 3 January 1996).

SHOW MORE

Created 4 months, 1 week ago.

164 videos

CategoryOther