Connections - Countdown - S1E9
"Countdown" connects the invention of the movie projector to improvements in castle fortifications caused by the invention and use of the cannon. The use of the cannon caused changes in castle fortifications to eliminate a blind spot where cannon fire could not reach. This improvement in castle defence caused innovation in offensive cannon fire, which eventually required maps. Thus, a need arose to view and map locations (like a mountain top) from a long distance, which led to the invention of limelight light source, and later the incandescent light. Burke turns to the next ingredient for a movie projector, film. Film is made with celluloid (made with guncotton) which was first invented as a substitute for ivory in billiard balls. Next was the invention of the zoopraxiscope which was first used for a bet to see if a horse's hooves all left the ground at any point while galloping. The zoopraxiscope used frame-by-frame pictures and holes on the side to allow the machine to pull the film forward. Communication signals for railways using Morse's telegraph led to Edison discovering how to speak into a microphone creating bumps on a disc that could be played back—the record player. This final ingredient gave movies sound. In summary, Burke connects the invention of the movie projector to four major innovations in history: the incandescent light, the discovery of celluloid, the projector that uses frame-by-frame pictures on celluloid, and finally, recorded sound.
Connections explores an "Alternative View of Change" that rejects the conventional linear and teleological view of historical progress. James Burke contends that one cannot consider the development of any particular piece of the modern world in isolation. Rather, the entire gestalt of the modern world is the result of a web of interconnected events, each one consisting of a person or group acting for reasons of their own motivations (e.g., profit, curiosity, religion) with no concept of the final, modern result to which the actions of either them or their contemporaries would lead. The interplay of the results of these isolated events is what drives history and innovation, and is also the main focus of the series.
Season One (1978)
part 1 https://www.bitchute.com/video/oz3SwIShJLxw/
part 2 https://www.bitchute.com/video/w3kiAlAOgvCu/
part 3 https://www.bitchute.com/video/C2lPN3gSMuDM/
part 4 https://www.bitchute.com/video/SCrI8xADTbCf/
part 5 https://www.bitchute.com/video/NFKce7FSh9TR/
part 6 https://www.bitchute.com/video/Wky0kuqDVxRO/
part 7 https://www.bitchute.com/video/6rXgBWw9zPcR/
part 8 https://www.bitchute.com/video/vxF9OPU5T28U/
part 9 https://www.bitchute.com/video/xj3ECM24x9g4/
part 10 https://www.bitchute.com/video/iHI4RX2KSOvs/
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