Insight History

Valhalla: Propaganda to Manipulate the Minds of Viking Warriors? 3-Minute History - Valhalla, meaning the hall of slain warriors, is one of the most famous depictions of the afterlife in history. For Vikings, Valhalla was paradise, taking the form of a great hall of warriors led by Odin, the Norse god of war and poetry. For those warriors valiant enough to be accepted into Valhalla, it was a magical place where they could feast and fight until Ragnarök (or Doomsday) came, when they would leave the great hall and fight with Odin against giants and demons…

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In-between the battlefield and reaching Valhalla however, were the Valkyries, supernatural female beings who decided who died in battle, and subsequently, which warriors would be taken to Valhalla. The fact that Valkyries were often depicted as being female speaks to a crucial question: was the mythology taught to Viking warriors merely a way for Viking rulers to produce brave fighters who had no fear of death?

For young, aggressive men, the idea of female, goddess-like creatures selecting the most valiant warriors was an attractive one, and an effective way for the elite to produce a strong warrior culture and expand their power (Bensel 2008: 386). In fact, some Viking kings reportedly paid poets to promote the warrior mentality and the glory of dying bravely in battle.

The strategy of using poets to glamorize the afterlife for warriors was not invented by the Vikings however. The ancient Greek philosopher, Plato, even discussed this in his book, The Republic, written around 2,400 years ago. Plato writes that in order to produce brave men who do not fear death, poets should be controlled and asked to “stop giving their present gloomy account of the afterlife, which is both untrue and unsuitable to produce a fighting spirit, and make them speak more favourably of it” (Plato 2007: 77).

The promotion of Valhalla and other aspects of Norse mythology in Viking culture can be seen, in part, as a way to make death more desirable than tragic.

Sources:
Augustyn, A. and the Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Valhalla https://www.britannica.com/topic/Valhalla-Norse-mythology
BBC. How do you get to Viking Valhalla? https://www.bbc.co.uk/teach/how-do-you-get-to-viking-valhalla/z7s747h
Bensel, R. (2008). Valor and Valkyries: Why the State Needs Valhalla. Polity, 40(3), 386-393.
Friðriksdóttir, J. K. (20 April, 2020) The Rise of the Valkyries, History Today https://www.historytoday.com/miscellanies/rise-valkyries
Plato - Lee, D. & Lane, M. (2007) The Republic (London: Penguin Group) - (p.76-77).
Sedgwick, M. (4 Feb. 2015) From Thor to Odin: a guide to the Norse gods, The Guardian - https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/feb/04/thor-odin-norse-gods-guide-iceland-temple-vikings-deities
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, Ragnarök https://www.britannica.com/event/Ragnarok

“Greater Scythia”: Did Scottish People Come from Russia as The Declaration of Arbroath Indicates? In the 1320 Declaration of Arbroath, which was a letter signed by almost 50 earls and barons of Scotland and sent to the Pope, asking him to recognise Scotland’s independence and Robert the Bruce as King, there is a curious reference to “greater Scythia.” The declaration states that the Scots “journeyed from Greater Scythia by way of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Pillars of Hercules, and dwelt for a long course of time in Spain… Thence it came, twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea, to its home in the west where it still lives today.” Yet can we give any credence to this origin story of the Scots? Scythia, or Greater Scythia, after all, referred to a region and the people of a region that was in central Asia, corresponding to the area around the Black Sea, Ukraine and the vast lands of Southern Russia.

Known largely as being a collection of nomadic tribes, which were fierce warriors, the Scythians built a culture and a region of influence that was prominent between 900BC and 200BC, and stretched from the Black Sea to China. Interestingly, the physical appearance of Scythians was reportedly not to dissimilar from the appearance of Scottish or Celtic people. Some of the Scythian women reportedly had fair hair and blue eyes, whilst some of the men had red hair. Certain sources also suggested that some Scythians had white hair, with these people referred to as Albani (Cowan 1984: 122). It is at least interesting to note that Scotland in Gaelic is called Alba.

Part of the reference to “greater Scythia” in the Declaration seems in part a reference to Saint Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland and one the twelve apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. Andrew is thought to have preached in Scythia, and there is an argument that he was martyred in Scythia…

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Sources:

Cowan, E. (2008) For Freedom Alone: The Declaration of Arbroath, 1320 (Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited).
Cowan, E. (1984). Myth and Identity in Early Medieval Scotland. The Scottish Historical Review, 63(176), 111-135.
Johnson, B. St Andrew, Patron Saint of Scotland, Historic UK https://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofScotland/St-Andrew-Patron-Saint-of-Scotland/
Mackay, N. (26 April, 2020) The Picts: who really were our mythical ancestors? The Herald https://www.heraldscotland.com/news/18406153.picts-really-mythical-ancestors/
National Records of Scotland, The Declaration of Arbroath: 700th Anniversary Display (1320-2020) https://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/files/research/NRS_DoA_English_booklet_700_Spreads_WEB.pdf
Scotland’s History (BBC) The Kingdom of the Gaels https://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/history/articles/kingdom_of_the_gaels/
The British Museum, Blog (30 May 2017) Introducing the Scythians https://blog.britishmuseum.org/introducing-the-scythians/
The Scotsman – The Newsroom (30 March, 2016) A brief history of the ancient Pict Kingdoms of Scotland https://www.scotsman.com/whats-on/arts-and-entertainment/brief-history-ancient-pict-kingdoms-scotland-1479792
The Scotsman, The Newsroom (13 Sep. 2006) The pharaoh's daughter who was the mother of all Scots https://www.scotsman.com/whats-on/arts-and-entertainment/pharaohs-daughter-who-was-mother-all-scots-2507668

Creative Commons Imagery:

Dbachmann https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Scythia-Parthia_100_BC.png GNU Free Documentation License https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Free_Documentation_License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en
Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) https://bit.ly/3gu1ApY
Catfish Jim and the soapdish at English Wikipedia D Lloyd https://bit.ly/3gsX5Mv Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported https://bit.ly/3foAhff GNU Free Documentation License https://bit.ly/2XvHRPk
Peoples of Northern Britain according to Ptolemy's map https://bit.ly/33x4qad Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en

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The UN Pushes for a Type of Universal Basic Income So 3 Billion Can Stay at Home – #TrendsDecoded

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Hi, and welcome to Trends Decoded. This is the series where I highlight important news stories that fit into larger trends that you should be aware of. Today, I am going to focus on Universal Basic Income: From Automation to the Covid-19 Pandemic.

The first story I want to review comes from the United Nations, or more specifically, the United Nations Development Programme. The title reads: Temporary Basic Income to protect the world's poorest people could slow the surge in COVID-19 cases…

This call by the UNDP of course comes after many governments around the world have shut down the free market, ordered people to stay at home and paid a large percentage of people’s salary under a type of furlough scheme in many countries.

Although these schemes are not identical to universal basic income, they certainly share many similarities to an idea that was originally suggested in relation to combating a future scenario where automation and robotics render many people’s jobs obsolete.

The New York Times reported all the way back in 2016 that Universal Basic Income was one plan being suggested in the decades to come if, and perhaps when, most traditional jobs are automated.

Over the past few months, it has become clear that at least one aspect of the Covid-19 pandemic is that it is a grand social experiment on a global level, perhaps the grandest, and one part of this experiment appears to be a trial of a form of universal basic income.

Yet there are numerous problems with governments around the world shutting down the free market and paying everyone’s salary.

Obviously, the economic cost for one, which may be paid in part through increased inflation in the coming years.

Secondly, governments around the world seem to have forgot that risk is a part of life. Unless you are in a vulnerable group, why are millions upon millions of young, healthy people, being ordered by the state to stay at home?

Thirdly, and this is the main point I want to highlight, it is extremely dangerous for everyone to be dependent on the government. Government’s around the world have now set the precedent that they can shut down the free market anytime a major event occurs, or has reportedly occurred.

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Sources:

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (23 July, 2020) Temporary Basic Income to protect the world's poorest people could slow the surge in COVID-19 cases, says UNDP - https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/news-centre/news/2020/Temporary_Basic_Income_to_protect_the_worlds_poorest_people_slow_COVID19.html
Moline, G. G. and Ortiz-Juarez (July, 2020) TEMPORARY BASIC INCOME: Protecting Poor and Vulnerable People in Developing Countries, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) - https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/transitions-series/temporary-basic-income--tbi--for-developing-countries.html
Manjoo, F. (2 March, 2016) A Plan in Case Robots Take the Jobs: Give Everyone a Paycheck, New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/03/technology/plan-to-fight-robot-invasion-at-work-give-everyone-a-paycheck.html
Clifford, C. (18 June, 2018) Elon Musk: Free cash handouts ‘will be necessary’ if robots take humans’ jobs, CNBC - https://www.cnbc.com/2018/06/18/elon-musk-automated-jobs-could-make-ubi-cash-handouts-necessary.html
Bendix, A. (8 Dec. 2019) One of the world's largest basic-income trials, a 2-year program in Finland, was a major flop. But experts say the test was flawed, Business Insider - https://www.businessinsider.com/finland-basic-income-experiment-reasons-for-failure-2019-12?r=US&IR=T

Overpopulation Myth Busted as Fertility Rates Continue To Plummet - Hi, and welcome to Trends Decoded. This is the series where I highlight important news stories that fit into larger trends that you should be aware of.

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Over the past couple of decades, you have probably heard people arguing that the world is overpopulated. Those at the top of the system have constantly been banging on about how the world is overpopulated, including Bill Gates, who is particularly worried about Africa, and who has donated billions of dollars to global population projects.

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Sources:
Kelland, K. (18 Sep. 2018) Africa's rapid population growth puts poverty progress at risk, says Gates, Reuters https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-global-gates/africas-rapid-population-growth-puts-poverty-progress-at-risk-says-gates-idUKKCN1LY0GQ
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, UN Population Fund Hails Bill and Melinda Gates' $2.2 Billion Donation to Fund Population and Health Activities Worldwide https://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases/1999/02/AboutUsPR990211
Whiting, K. (9 Oct. 2018) David Attenborough: The planet can’t cope with overpopulation, World Economic Forum https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/10/david-attenborough-warns-planet-cant-cope-with-overpopulation/
Piper, K. (20 Aug. 2020) We’ve worried about overpopulation for centuries. And we’ve always been wrong. Vox News https://www.vox.com/future-perfect/2019/8/20/20802413/overpopulation-demographic-transition-population-explained
Gallagher, J. (15 July, 2020) Fertility rate: 'Jaw-dropping' global crash in children being born, BBC News https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-53409521
Stein Emil Vollset, Emily Goren, Chun-Wei Yuan, Jackie Cao, Amanda E Smith, Thomas Hsiao, Catherine Bisignano, Gulrez S Azhar, Emma Castro, Julian Chalek, Andrew J Dolgert, Tahvi Frank, Kai Fukutaki, Simon I Hay, Rafael Lozano, Ali H Mokdad, Vishnu Nandakumar, Maxwell Pierce, Martin Pletcher, Toshana Robalik, Krista M Steuben, Han Yong Wunrow, Bianca S Zlavog, Christopher J L Murray (14 July, 2020) Fertility, mortality, migration, and population scenarios for 195 countries and territories from 2017 to 2100: a forecasting analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study, The Lancet https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30677-2/fulltext - PDF https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2930677-2 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Harvard, S. (26 Feb. 2019) Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez says it is 'legitimate' for people to not want children because of climate change, The Independent https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/alexandria-ocasio-cortez-children-climate-change-aoc-instagram-young-people-a8797806.html
Navarro, M. (31 Oct. 2011) Breaking a Long Silence on Population Control, The New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/01/science/earth/bringing-up-the-issue-of-population-growth.html
Hagai Levine, Niels Jørgensen, Anderson Martino-Andrade, Jaime Mendiola, Dan Weksler-Derri, Irina Mindlis, Rachel Pinotti, Shanna H Swan, Temporal trends in sperm count: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis, Human Reproduction Update, Volume 23, Issue 6, November-December 2017, Pages 646–659, https://academic.oup.com/humupd/article/23/6/646/4035689
Rahman, M., Kwon, W., Lee, J. et al. Bisphenol-A Affects Male Fertility via Fertility-related Proteins in Spermatozoa. Sci Rep 5, 9169 (2015). https://www.nature.com/articles/srep09169#citeas
Dutchen, S. (6 Feb. 2020) Antioxidant reverses most BPA-induced fertility damage in worms, The Harvard Gazette https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2020/02/antioxidant-reverses-bpa-induced-fertility-damage-in-worms/
Hornos Carneiro MF, Shin N, Karthikraj R, Barbosa F Jr, Kannan K, Colaiácovo MP. Antioxidant CoQ10 Restores Fertility by Rescuing Bisphenol A-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in the Caenorhabditis elegans Germline. Genetics. 2020;214(2):381-395. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31852725/
Chiu Y, Williams PL, Gillman MW, et al. Association Between Pesticide Residue Intake From Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Pregnancy Outcomes Among Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment With Assisted Reproductive Technology. JAMA Intern Med. 2018;178(1):17–26. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2659557
Population Council, About our History https://www.popcouncil.org/about/timeline#ourHistory
Rockefeller Foundation, President’s Five-Year Review and Annual Report 1968, Chapter on Problems of Population https://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/Annual-Report-1968-1.pdf
The Corbett Report (06/05/2018) Meet Paul Ehrlich, Pseudoscience Charlatan https://www.corbett

Order Out of Chaos: Using Covid-19 Fear to Re-engineer Global Society

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In 2008, the political adviser, Rahm Emmanuel, who would go on to become Barack Obama’s White House Chief of Staff and then Mayor of Chicago, famously said that “you never want a serious crisis to go to waste.” It’s abundantly clear by now that global networks of power are using the Covid-19 crisis as the perfect justification to attempt to completely reorder the entire economic, political and social system of the globe, to serve their own interests. Agendas that are years or decades old are being pushed due to the fear and hysteria caused by Covid-19, or at least the response to Covid-19.

For instance, in 2005, Tony Blair, a man who many would consider a war criminal for his role in the Iraq War, pushed for biometric ID cards to be introduced in Britain. Fast forward 15-years to 2020, and guess what, Tony Blair is advocating for digital ID cards once again, in the form of global immunity or health passports. Global digital ID cards are not the only the agenda being pushed however. The United Nations (UN) is pushing its long-held green agenda in response to the Covid-19 crisis. The global body is advocating for a greener economic reopening, including the potential for bailouts which prioritize green, UN sanctioned businesses and industries.

Furthermore, pretty much every major internationalist organization on the planet is advocating for the complete reordering of global society in the form of a ‘Great Reset,’ including the World Economic Forum (WEF) at Davos and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In fact, the WEF has announced, along with Prince Charles, that Davos is holding a twin summit in January 2021 on the theme of the Great Reset.

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Sources:

Cicero., Grant, M. (1971) Cicero, Selected Works (London: Penguin Books). Quote from p.63.
Farand, C. (1 Aug. 2017) Third of British people want to see Tony Blair tried as a war criminal over Iraq, finds YouGov poll, The Independent - https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/tony-blair-war-criminal-iraq-trial-convicted-yougov-british-people-uk-prme-minister-wmds-dossier-a7870341.html
Georgieva, K. (3 June, 2020) The Great Reset, Remarks to World Economic Forum
Kristalina Georgieva, Managing Director, IMF https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2020/06/03/sp060320-remarks-to-world-economic-forum-the-great-reset
Insight Health (4 April, 2020) Immunity is King: Natural Ways to Strengthen Your Immunity https://insighthistory.com/latest-content/f/introducing-insight-health-ways-to-strengthen-your-immunity
Insight History (9 April, 2020) Orwell’s 1984 Meets the Covid-19 Pandemic https://insighthistory.com/latest-content/f/orwell%E2%80%99s-1984-meets-the-covid-19-pandemic
Insight History (28 April, 2020) The UN Plan that Called for De Facto Travel Restrictions in 1992 https://insighthistory.com/latest-content/f/the-un-plan-that-called-for-de-facto-travel-restrictions-in-1992
Insight History (9 June, 2020) Did Globalization and Open Borders Help Spread Covid-19? https://insighthistory.com/latest-content/f/did-globalization-and-open-borders-help-spread-covid-19
Insight History (21 May, 2020) A Global Cashless Society Has Been the Goal of Gates Since 2012 https://insighthistory.com/latest-content/f/a-global-cashless-society-has-been-the-goal-of-gates-since-2012
McElroy, D. (9 June 2020) Tony Blair calls for global digital IDs to drive recovery from coronavirus shutdown, The National https://www.thenational.ae/world/tony-blair-calls-for-global-digital-ids-to-drive-recovery-from-coronavirus-shutdown-1.1031262
PA/The Independent (25 May 2005) Blair urges support for ID cards https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/blair-urges-support-for-id-cards-492034.html
Rahm Emanuel on the Opportunities of Crisis (19 Nov. 2008) Wall Street Journal - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_mzcbXi1Tkk
The World Economic Forum, About the Great Reset https://www.weforum.org/great-reset/about
The World Economic Forum, the Great Reset https://www.weforum.org/great-reset/
UN (20 April, 2020) Secretary-General Says COVID-19 ‘Wake-Up Call’ Demands Recovery Built on Green Economy, Marking Earth Day 2020 https://www.un.org/press/en/2020/sgsm20051.doc.htm

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If George Orwell was alive today and was writing an updated version of 1984, much of the language used in relation to the Covid-19 pandemic would feature prominently. A whole lexicon has been created for Covid-19, and it’s strikingly Orwellian. If we put aside all health concerns for a second, and just focus on the language of the pandemic, it’s truly bizarre. Terms such as social bubbles, self-isolation, social distancing, contact tracing, shielding, lockdown and quarantine, read like they belong in the pages of some obscure dystopian novel. Furthermore, some Covid-19 words sound like they have come directly from Orwell’s newspeak. Doomscrolling, for instance, is a word invented due to the pandemic and refers to people addictively scrolling through their phones desperate for the latest apocalyptic news hit. Another Covid-19 word is Blursday, where days and time blur into one Covid-19 blackhole.

If we focus more on the history of some of these Covid-19 words, a disturbing picture is revealed in certain instances. Lockdown for example, one of the most popular Covid-19 words, traditionally referred to the prison system, where wardens confine “prisoners to their cells for all or most of the day as a temporary security measure.” In contrast however, the history of the term self-quarantined is actually quite interesting. It was first used in 1878 in reference to an incident that took place in 1666, when the population of Eyam, a village in England, isolated itself to stop the bubonic plague from spreading to villages close by, such as Sheffield, with Eyam losing at least a third of its population due its decision to self-quarantine.

More broadly however, the social practices and rules that are now in place in many countries are concerning on many levels. The push for people to wear masks is a worrying trend for instance. Even though people in many Asian countries are more accustomed to wearing masks than in Western countries, and masks may have some merit in relation to transmission control, the social implications of everyone wearing a mask are disconcerting, as masks are dehumanizing. Masks cut off a large percentage of a human being’s facial profile: the movement of our mouths, checks, jaw, teeth, tongue and nose, are all hidden. The fact that masks conceal your face is obviously why criminals wear them to conceal their identity. For young children living through this pandemic, they are being conditioned into the new abnormal of seeing adults wearing masks and gloves for doing such basic human tasks as going food shopping.

It is clear that Covid-19 is not ushering in the new normal; but the new abnormal! In fact, the whole use of the term ‘new normal’ is bizarre in itself. Prior to the Covid-19 pandemic, the term new normal could only really be found in academic journals or in talks by independent researchers such as Alan Watt; yet now, it is front page news on a daily basis, with government ministers incessantly using the term.

The good news however is that various Orwellian apps that governments have been attempting to roll out are failing in many countries around the world.

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Sources:

Kelion, L. (15 June, 2020) Coronavirus: Contact-tracing apps face further hitches, BBC News https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-53051783
Kelion, L. (18 June, 2020) UK virus-tracing app switches to Apple-Google model, BBC News https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-53095336
Mckenna, D. (5 Nov. 2016) Eyam plague: The village of the damned, BBC News https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-35064071
Merriam-Webster, Definition of Lockdown https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lockdown
Paton, B. (9 April, 2020) Social change and linguistic change: the language of Covid-19, Oxford English Dictionary https://public.oed.com/blog/the-language-of-covid-19/
Ro, C. (25 May, 2020) Why we’ve created new language for coronavirus, BBC News https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20200522-why-weve-created-new-language-for-coronavirus
Watt, A. Cutting Through the Matrix https://www.cuttingthroughthematrix.com/

The Battle of Bannockburn, the Robert the Bruce Conspiracy and the First Scottish War of Independence - Of all the battles that took place in the British Isles down through the ages, the war cries of the Battle of Bannockburn ring among the loudest. Fought in 1314 between the King of Scotland, Robert I, or Robert the Bruce as he is more commonly known, and King Edward II of England, the battle is one of the most iconic in history. To understand the Battle of Bannockburn however, we need to understand the broader struggle that it took place within: namely, the First Scottish War of Independence, which lasted from 1296 to 1328.

The First Scottish War of Independence grew out of a succession crisis, after Alexander III of Scotland died in 1286, followed by his heir, Margaret, Maid of Norway, dying in 1290. This vacuum of power sparked a contest for the crown between John Balliol and Robert Bruce, the grandfather of the more famous Robert the Bruce who fought at Bannockburn. This dispute resulted in King Edward I, who ruled England from 1273 to 1307, stepping in to mediate, awarding Balliol the crown in 1292. The crafty English King exploited this appointment however, frequently meddling in Scottish affairs. In 1295, the Scottish nobility, sick of Balliol’s weak leadership and failure to maintain Scotland’s independence, signed the Auld Alliance with France, the arch enemy of England.

Edward’s response was to invade Scotland, which began when English forces sacked the important Scottish border-town of Berwick, in 1296. In response to Edward’s invasion, a resistance movement led by William Wallace and Andrew de Moray formed, with this movement going on to win important battles, including at Stirling Bridge in 1297. However, the loss at the Battle of Falkirk in 1298 and further defeats resulted in England controlling large parts of Scotland, including taking control of Stirling Castle between 1303 and 1304. Resistance to English rule renewed when Robert the Bruce was crowned King of Scotland in 1306.

By May, King Edward II was marching an army of around 13,000 men to Stirling Castle, the largest army to ever invade Scotland up until that point. The battle that ensued is one of the most famous in Scottish history, although little written sources exist detailing it (Ditchburn and MacDonald, 2014: 162). The Battle of Bannockburn took place between the 23rd and 24th of June, 1314, and was likely fought on ground to the south of Stirling Castle; ground which had been carefully chosen by Bruce. The Bannock and Pelstream burns offered natural barriers to the east, and Bruce’s forces dug concealed pits to impede the charging English cavalry.

The epic opening exchange of the battle set the tone for the entire episode. Mounted on a horse, Bruce was at the front of his troops. An English knight, Henry de Bohun, spotted the Scottish King, and charged his horse towards Bruce leading with his lance. Just as the English knight reached Bruce, the Scot slipped the lance by twisting his mount of to the side, instantly propelling himself back up and smashing his axe through the English warriors skull, killing his instantly. Energised, the Scottish fighters forced Edward’s cavalry to withdraw.

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Sources:
Brown, D. The declaration of Arbroath: pedigree of a nation? In Barrow, G. (Eds) The Declaration of Arbroath: History, Significance, Setting, Chap 1, pages pp. 1-12. First published in The Declaration of Arbroath: History, Significance, Setting: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (2003) https://eprints.gla.ac.uk/3710/1/arbroath2.pdf
Castelow, E. The Battle of Bannockburn, Historic UK - https://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryMagazine/DestinationsUK/The-Battle-of-Bannockburn/
DITCHBURN, D., & MACDONALD, C. (2014). Editorial: Bannockburn, World War I and the Referendum. The Scottish Historical Review, 93(237), 161-170. www.jstor.org/stable/43774032
Duncan, A. (1992). The War of the Scots, 1306-23: The Prothero Lecture. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 2, 125-151.
Grant, A. (2007). The Death of John Comyn: What Was Going On? The Scottish Historical Review, 86(222), 176-224. www.jstor.org/stable/25529980
Oxford Reference – Scottish Wars of Independence - https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100449150
Scotland’s History, the BBC - The Battle of Bannockburn, 1314 - https://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/history/articles/battle_of_bannockburn/
Stirling Council, The Battle of Bannockburn - https://www.stirling.gov.uk/tourism-visitors/stirlings-history/wallace-bruce-rob-roy-macgreagor/battle-of-bannockburn/
Stirling Council, The First War of Independence: 1296-1328 - https://www.stirling.gov.uk/tourism-visitors/stirlings-history/wallace-bruce-rob-roy-macgreagor/the-first-war/

Imperialism, Diamonds and Power: The Plan of Cecil Rhodes Secret Society for Global Control - The question of whether a statue of Cecil Rhodes should be taken down has been raging in Britain in recent weeks, fuelled by the George Floyd protests that have swept the world. Personally, I am not a fan of people pulling down statues of historical figures, not because I necessarily like these figures, but because destroying a statue doesn’t change history, and people should not forget history. In saying all this, I am by no means making a case for why Cecil Rhodes was great. The exact opposite is true, yet there are two sides of Cecil Rhodes, both of them imperialist, but both of them not widely understood.

One side of Rhodes is relatively well known: he was an imperialist who was heavily involved in Southern Africa, including serving as the Prime Minister of the Cape Colony between 1890-96; he was a diamond magnate who founded the company De Beers, where labourers were racially segregated during his time; various Rhodesian Africans colonies were named after him; and he set-up a Rhodes Scholarship program at Oxford University that the likes of Bill Clinton went through.

Yet, there is another side to Rhodes. This, more esoteric side, is unfortunately not so well understood, yet equally important to understand. Rhodes, and the organizations he founded and inspired, went on to play a role in the founding of Chatham House, or the Royal Institute of International Affairs.

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Sources:
Chatham House, Current Corporate Members https://www.chathamhouse.org/membership/corporate-membership/corporate-list
Chatham House (5 Dec 2016) Boris Johnson on UK Foreign Policy in the Era of Brexit https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JuZwjX5cMn0
Chatham House (22 Jan 2012) Jon Snow: Time to Rethink Iran https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aTpLUSyUXcQ
Chatham House (29 June 2018) John C Whitehead Lecture 2018: In Defence of Globalization https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2oaYmh6XLFo
Chatham House (29 May 2019) Centenary Conversation: Sir John Major https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1KjGrwDfZeQ
Chatham House, Our History https://www.chathamhouse.org/about/history
Curtis, L. (1928). A British Appraisal. News Bulletin (Institute of Pacific Relations), 14-16 https://bit.ly/2YmYb4g
Donors to Chatham House - https://www.chathamhouse.org/about/our-funding/donors-chatham-house
Grose, P. Continuing the Inquiry, The Council on Foreign Relations
https://www.cfr.org/book/continuing-inquiry
Harris, P. (9 Dec. 2001) 'Spin' on Boer atrocities, The Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/dec/09/paulharris.theobserver
Lavin, D. (1995; 2011) From Empire to International Commonwealth: A Biography of Lionel Curtis (London: Oxford Scholarship Online) - https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198126164.001.0001/acprof-9780198126164
May, A. (22 Sep. 2005) Milner's Kindergarten, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography https://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/9780198614128.001.0001/odnb-9780198614128-e-93711
Nelson, S. C. (9 June 2020) Who Was Cecil Rhodes And Why Do Campaigners Want To Topple His Statue At Oxford University? Huffington Post - https://bit.ly/2ztUvFG
New York Times (5 Jan 1977) DR. CARROLL QUIGLEY [Obituary] https://www.nytimes.com/1977/01/05/archives/dr-carroll-quigley.html
Parkinson, J. (1 April, 2015) Why is Cecil Rhodes such a controversial figure? BBC News - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-32131829
Quigley, C. (1981) The Anglo-American Establishment (San Pedro: GSG and Associates).
Quigley, C. (1966) Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in our Time (New York; London: The MacMillan Company; Collier- MacMillan Limited).
Rietzler, K. (20 May 2019) The Hotel Majestic and the Origins of Chatham House, Chatham House - https://www.chathamhouse.org/expert/comment/hotel-majestic-and-origins-chatham-house
Shore, M. (1979). Cecil Rhodes and the Ego Ideal. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 10(2), 249-265.

Creative Commons Imagery:
Christopher Hilton / Statue of Cecil Rhodes, High Street frontage of Oriel College, Oxford / CC BY-SA 2.0 https://bit.ly/3fHBy1R https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en
Chatham House https://bit.ly/2Y8RQdO Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license https://bit.ly/3hB3YME
Chatham House over the Jubilee weekend https://bit.ly/2N5FCg0 Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license https://bit.ly/3hB3YME
Lady Thatcher exiting Chatham House following a talk https://bit.ly/2YE17Kd Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license https://bit.ly/37Bch6p
Jon Snow, Broadcaster, Channel 4 News https://bit.ly/3d4rvCd Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license https://bit.ly/3fuH2g1

Did Globalization and Open Borders Help Spread Covid-19? On the 3rd of February 2020, the head of the World Health Organization (WHO) urged all countries not to impose travel bans to stop the spread of Covid-19. On the 10th of March, the French President, Emmanuel Macron, criticized Austria and Slovenia for closing their borders with Italy, saying that these countries had made “bad decisions.” On the 13th of March, a top adviser to the WHO said that restricting movement wouldn’t help in the fight against the virus.

By April the 1st, 91% of the global population, or 7.1 billion people, were living in countries that had imposed some sort of travel restrictions. This begs the question: should governments around the world have imposed travel bans and border restrictions earlier in the fight against Covid-19? It’s certainly plausible that if governments had acted quicker to impose restrictions on travel, Covid-19 may very well have been a localized epidemic in eastern Asia, as opposed to a globalized issue that has wreaked havoc on most countries and economies around the world.

One study that was conducted by network specialists from Northeastern University indicated that travel bans at least delayed the spread of Covid-19 when they were implemented in China, and in combination with transmission control measures, they dampened the virulence of Covid-19.

What is certainly clear more broadly is that, in a globalized world, diseases can spread around the world at a faster pace than any other time in history. The decline in the power of nation-states produced by the increased flow of people and capital across borders, has reduced the checks and barriers that national border controls used to provide. The fact that a globalized world also has created a system of interdependence has also been highlighted by the pandemic.

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Sources:

Arntsen, E. (6 March, 2020) Closing borders can delay, but can’t stop the spread of COVID-19, new report says, [email protected] - https://news.northeastern.edu/2020/03/06/to-slow-the-spread-of-covid-19-close-doors-not-borders-new-report-says/
Bloom, J. (2 April, 2020) Will coronavirus reverse globalisation? BBC News - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-52104978
Brunsden, J., and Peel, M. (20 April 2020) Covid-19 exposes EU’s reliance on drug imports, Financial Times - https://www.ft.com/content/c30eb13a-f49e-4d42-b2a8-1c6f70bb4d55
Connor, P. (1 April, 2020) More than nine-in-ten people worldwide live in countries with travel restrictions amid COVID-19, Pew Research - https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/04/01/more-than-nine-in-ten-people-worldwide-live-in-countries-with-travel-restrictions-amid-covid-19/
Euronews with AP (13 March, 2020) World Health Organization: Don't expect travel bans to beat coronavirus - https://www.euronews.com/2020/03/13/world-health-organization-don-t-expect-travel-bans-to-beat-coronavirus
France 24 (10 March 2020) Macron says EU leaders will take 'all measures necessary' to tackle coronavirus - https://www.france24.com/en/20200310-live-macron-addresses-france-on-coronavirus-crisis
Kitenge, S. Y. (15 April, 2020) Globalisation linkage to COVID-19: How Africa’s Economy is Impacted? United Nations (Africa Renewal) - https://www.un.org/africarenewal/news/coronavirus/globalisation-linkage-covid-19-how-africa%E2%80%99s-economy-impacted
Ma, J. (13 March, 2020) Coronavirus: China’s first confirmed Covid-19 case traced back to November 17, South China Morning Post - https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/3074991/coronavirus-chinas-first-confirmed-covid-19-case-traced-back
MATTEO CHINAZZI, JESSICA T. DAVIS, MARCO AJELLI, CORRADO GIOANNINI, MARIA LITVINOVA, STEFANO MERLER, ANA PASTORE Y PIONTTI, KUNPENG MU, LUCA ROSSI, KAIYUAN SUN, CÉCILE VIBOUD, XINYUE XIONG, HONGJIE YU, M. ELIZABETH HALLORAN, IRA M. LONGINI JR., ALESSANDRO VESPIGNANI (APRIL 2020) The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, SCIENCE24: 395-400 - HTTPS://SCIENCE.SCIENCEMAG.ORG/CONTENT/368/6489/395
Nebehay, S. (3 Feb. 2020) WHO chief says widespread travel bans not needed to beat China virus, Reuters - https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-health-who/who-chief-says-widespread-travel-bans-not-needed-to-beat-china-virus-idUSKBN1ZX1H3
Yang, L. (20 May, 2020) Pandemic Exposes Perils of Global Reliance on China for Drug Supplies, Voice of America - https://www.voanews.com/science-health/pandemic-exposes-perils-global-reliance-china-drug-supplies

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A Global Cashless Society has been the Goal of the Bill Gates Foundation Since 2012 - The creation of a global cashless society has been advocated by many powerful interests in light of the Covid-19 pandemic. Chinese authorities have been disinfecting cash and removing cash from circulation in the name of combating coronavirus. In Britain, the UK supermarket chain, Tesco, opened its first cashless store in London earlier this year, whilst Waitrose, another UK supermarket, increased the payment limit for contactless transactions from £30 to £45. In March, a consumer group in Russia encouraged citizens to use digital payment methods as opposed to cash, arguing that this could impede the spread of coronavirus.

This came shortly after the World Health Organization (WHO) caused a stir after it was reported that they advised people to wash their hands after touching banknotes and use contactless payment methods instead of cash, yet the WHO later said that these statements had been misreported, and that they hadn’t said cash was spreading coronavirus. Even though certain medical experts have dismissed the claim that cash plays a major role in the transmission of Covid-19, many organizations continue to push the cashless agenda.

This is because the cashless agenda is much older than this latest crisis. Of course, there have been numerous calls by governments or corporations calling for people to go cashless in recent years, including when the CEO of Bank of America advocated a cashless society last year. Yet the calls for going cashless are much older than the past couple of years, as it has been the objective of an Alliance funded and supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and agencies of the United Nations (UN) since 2012.
We also should not forget that a future global cashless society would not exist in a vacuum and would complement the other surveillance powers available to corporate and government power.

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Sources:

BBC News (17 Jan. 2014) Edward Snowden: Leaks that exposed US spy programme, BBC News - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-23123964
Better than Cash Alliance - https://www.betterthancash.org/
Cashless India, the Digital India Programme, Government of India - http://cashlessindia.gov.in/index.html
Clark, R. (16 April, 2020) The cashless lobby is cashing in on Covid-19, The Spectator - https://www.spectator.co.uk/article/the-cashless-lobby-is-cashing-in-on-covid-19
Gardner, B. (2 March, 2020) Dirty banknotes may be spreading the coronavirus, WHO suggests, The Telegraph - https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/03/02/exclusive-dirty-banknotes-may-spreading-coronavirus-world-health/
Insight History (9 April, 2020) Orwell’s 1984 Meets the Covid-19 Pandemic - https://insighthistory.com/latest-content/f/orwell%E2%80%99s-1984-meets-the-covid-19-pandemic
Jagannathan, M. (9 March 2020) World Health Organization: ‘We did NOT say that cash was transmitting coronavirus,’ Market Watch - https://www.marketwatch.com/story/who-we-did-not-say-that-cash-was-transmitting-coronavirus-2020-03-06
Joyce, K. (20 June 2019) Bank of America CEO says company wants a ‘cashless society,’ Fox Business - https://www.foxbusiness.com/business-leaders/bank-of-america-ceo-says-company-wants-cashless-society
Loewenstein, A. (11 July 2014) The ultimate goal of the NSA is total population control, The Guardian - https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/jul/11/the-ultimate-goal-of-the-nsa-is-total-population-control
Marrow, A. (24 march, 2020) Russia in digital payments push as it limits banknote circulation, Reuters - https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-russia-banknotes/russia-in-digital-payments-push-as-it-limits-banknote-circulation-idUKKBN21B1D1
Nazmi, S. (12 March 2019) India election 2019: Did the ban on high-value banknotes work? BBC News - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-46400677
Peachey, K. (6 March 2019) Pay by cash? Not for long, report warns, BBC News - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-47456698
Smithers, R. (26 Feb. 2020) Tesco opens cashless store in central London, The Guardian - https://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/feb/26/tesco-opens-cashless-store-central-london
Vilamil, J. (18 Oct. 2019) Where Cash Is King, the Government Wants Everyone to Pay By App, Bloomberg - https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-10-18/mobile-payments-come-to-cash-obsessed-mexico
Waitrose & Partners (01 April, 2020) Waitrose Raises Contactless Payment Limit From £30 To £45 - https://waitrose.pressarea.com/pressrelease/details/78/0/12207
Yeung, J. (17 Feb. 2020) China is disinfecting and destroying cash to contain the coronavirus, CNN Business - https://edition.cnn.com/2020/02/17/asia/china-is-disinfecting-cash-coronavirus-intl-hnk-scli/ind

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The UN Agenda 21 Plan that Called for De Facto Global Travel Restrictions in 1992 - In a 1992 global declaration, the United Nations (UN) called for de facto global travel restrictions, all in the name of saving the planet. At the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), that took place in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, 178 governments from around the world signed a comprehensive global action plan called Agenda 21. In essence, Agenda 21 is a global agenda drafted by the UN that serves as a blueprint for the entire 21st century.

Today, I will concentrate on one aspect of the plan: the UN agenda to restrict motorized travel. The UN has been consistent on this message over the years. A 2016 report from the UN Environment Programme advises governments to promote and invest in forms of non-motorized transport, particularly promoting walking and cycling as sustainable alternatives to private cars. The slogan that was often used by UN officials in this campaign was “put people, not cars, first,” with the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) advising all countries to invest around 20 percent of their transport budgets in cycling and walking infrastructure.

At a national level, various countries around the world have passed legislation that restricts, or will restrict, the private car sector. In line with UN wishes, both Britain and France have passed laws that will ban the sale of diesel and petrol cars by 2040, with Britain planning on bringing the ban forward to 2035. Environmental groups have also called on London to have no private cars on the road by 2030, with Transport for London announcing that they are investing £2.3 billion in an attempt to make walking, cycling or trips on public transport account for 80% of journeys by 2041. In view of Agenda 21, does any of these steps sound familiar? Obviously, the promotion of walking and cycling over using private cars is one way to severely restrict the ability of a person to travel.

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Sources:

Agence France-Presse, The Guardian (24 Oct. 2017) Singapore: no more cars allowed on the road, government says - https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/24/singapore-no-more-cars-allowed-on-the-road-government-says
BBC News (1 August, 2019) Call for London to be car-free by 2030 - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-49192315
BBC News (4 February, 2020) Petrol and diesel car sales ban brought forward to 2035 - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-51366123
Carrington, D. (3 April, 2020) UK road travel falls to 1955 levels as Covid-19 lockdown takes hold, The Guardian - https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/apr/03/uk-road-travel-falls-to-1955-levels-as-covid-19-lockdown-takes-hold-coronavirus-traffic
Chrisafis, A. and Vaughan, A. (6 July, 2017) France to ban sales of petrol and diesel cars by 2040 - https://www.theguardian.com/business/2017/jul/06/france-ban-petrol-diesel-cars-2040-emmanuel-macron-volvo
Ekblom, J. (4 Oct. 2019) Denmark calls for EU ban on sale of all diesel and petrol cars by 2040, Reuters - https://www.reuters.com/article/eu-autos-denmark/corrected-denmark-calls-for-eu-ban-on-sale-of-all-diesel-and-petrol-cars-by-2040-idUSL2N26P09C
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), (June 1992) Agenda 21 Full PDF - https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), (June 1992) Agenda 21, United Nations Sustainable Development - https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/outcomedocuments/agenda21
United Nations Environment (2016) Global Outlook on Walking and Cycling (Policies and Realities from Around the World) - https://europa.eu/capacity4dev/unep/documents/global-outlook-walking-and-cycling-policies-realities-around-world
United Nations Environment Report: Put people, not cars first in transport systems - https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2016/10/un-environment-report-put-people-not-cars-first-in-transport-systems/

The (1961) Bay of Pigs Invasion Explained: Was JFK Misled by the CIA? – This documentary will explain the Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961 in Cuba, detailing the role played by John F. Kennedy’s intelligence advisors from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and other agencies in the incident.

The Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961 is one of the most notorious events in American history, with the word fiasco often associated with the incident given its unsuccessful conclusion for America. Yet what factors explain why the Bay of Pigs invasion became such a failure? Before we proceed further however, a little background on the rise of Fidel Castro in Cuba is needed. In 1959, Castro came to power after ousting the US-backed dictatorship of President Fulgencia Batista, bringing to an end the Cuban revolution. After losing control of Cuba, and with Cuba aligning closer to the Soviet Union, the US President, Dwight D. Eisenhower, instructed the CIA in March 1960 to begin planning for the invasion of Cuba and the ousting of Castro.

The CIA then initiated the core operation that later became the Bay of Pigs invasion force of April 1961, when they began financing and training exiled counter-revolutionary Cubans, who would be known as Brigade 2506. By early 1961 however, there was a change in US leadership, as John F. Kennedy won the November 1960 presidential election and was inaugurated in January 1961. After learning of the CIA operation, JFK approved the continuation of the enterprise after consulting with his advisers, albeit somewhat skeptically.

On April the 17th, the Bay of Pigs Invasion began. Brigade pilots took off to offer some patchy aircover to the forces below, as approximately 1,500 members of the CIA trained and financed brigade stormed the beach. When the brigade ran into resistance and requested further air support, JFK only sanctioned a limited air response, in line with the limits he had set on the mission prior to it going live, with this proving ineffective at turning the tide. Within only a couple of days of fighting, the Cuban forces under Castro’s direct command defeated the brigade.

One of the most popular explanations for why the Bay of Pigs invasion was such a failure is groupthink. Yet this isn’t the full story. Groupthink may provide some insights, but this is not a complete explanation. Writings from the Head of the CIA during the Bay of Pigs invasion, Allen W. Dulles, show that Dulles and other top intelligence advisers to JFK didn’t withhold raising criticisms to the invasion plan because of groupthink, but because they were so hell-bent on carrying out the operation that they deliberately withheld giving the President their honest advice. After publicly taking responsibility for the failed operation, JFK told Dulles to resign from his position as CIA director, with Dulles resigning in November of 1961.

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Sources:

Central Intelligence Agency (18 April, 2016) The Bay of Pigs Invasion - https://www.cia.gov/news-information/featured-story-archive/2016-featured-story-archive/the-bay-of-pigs-invasion.html
Dallek, R. (14 Aug. 2011) BAY OF PIGS: NEWLY REVEALED CIA DOCUMENTS EXPOSE BLUNDERS, Newsweek - https://www.newsweek.com/bay-pigs-newly-revealed-cia-documents-expose-blunders-67275
Hansen, M. (22 November, 2013) How John F. Kennedy Changed Decision Making for Us All, Harvard Business Reviews - https://hbr.org/2013/11/how-john-f-kennedy-changed-decision-making
Hart, P. (1991). Irving L. Janis' Victims of Groupthink. Political Psychology, 12(2), 247-278. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3791464?seq=1
Office of the Historian - https://history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/bay-of-pigs
Teague, G., & Bartholomees, J. (2014). U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE GUIDE TO NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY AND STRATEGY, COGNITIVE FACTORS IN NATIONAL SECURITY DECISIONMAKING (pp. 261-270, Rep.). Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. www.jstor.org/stable/resrep12023.22
Vandenbroucke, L. (1984). The "Confessions" of Allen Dulles: New Evidence on the Bay of Pigs. Diplomatic History, 8(4), 365-375. www.jstor.org/stable/44363812
Voss, M. (14 April 2011) Bay of Pigs: The 'perfect failure' of Cuba invasion, BBC News - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-13066561

The Final Rebellion: An Epic History of the Battle of Culloden - In the early afternoon on the 16th of April, 1746, the last pitched battle to take place on British soil came to a conclusive end. To understand this battle however, we need to understand the events that sparked the Jacobite Rebellion decades earlier.

The Jacobite Rebellion was a complex and nuanced period in the history of the British Isles, beginning with the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and ending with the death of Prince Charles Edward Stuart, who is commonly referred to as Bonnie Prince Charlie or the Young Pretender, in 1788. It began when the Roman Catholic monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland, who was from the House of Stuart, known as James VII in Scotland and James II in England, was overthrown in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, William of Orange, who co-reigned until Mary’s death five years later, with William of Orange solely reigning until his death in 1702. After William’s death, Mary’s sister Anne reigned as Queen until 1714, when the throne was passed to King George I of the House of Hanover.

In 1745, another instance of Jacobite revolt erupted, after Prince Charles Edward travelled to the Scottish highlands and rallied thousands of clansmen to fight under the banner of restoring the Stuart monarchy. Food and resources were scarce, with Jacobite soldiers living off a ration of just three biscuits a day in the run-up to the Battle of Culloden. After failing to successfully execute a stealth attack on the British army during the night however (Linn 1921: 22), the Jacobite army found themselves fighting what would be the last pitched battle on British soil against the forces of King George II.

Following the unsuccessful surprise attack, the Jacobite army retreated to Culloden Moor, around five miles east of Inverness. On the day of the battle, the Jacobites were led by Prince Charles Edward, with George II’s son, the Duke of Cumberland, leading the opposing army. Outnumbered, the Jacobite army was sliced through by the British cavalry. In the wake of battle, Prince Charles Edward fled Scotland and ended up in France. In the Highlands, the remains of the clan system and the Highland lifestyle were destroyed by the British government. The Battle of Culloden consolidated the House of Hanover’s hold on the British throne, a hold that lasted until the reign of Queen Victoria. Queen Victoria’s marriage to her first-cousin, Prince Albert, introduced the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha into Britain. And then, in 1917, King George V changed the name of the royal family to the more English-sounding Windsor, at a time when anti-German sentiment was strong in Britain given the world war.

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Sources:

BBC News (14 July 2016) Culloden was won with swords, not muskets, research claims - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-highlands-islands-36791637
BBC Teach, Queen Victoria: The woman who redefined Britain’s monarchy - https://www.bbc.co.uk/teach/ks3-gcse-history-queen-victoria-monarchy/z73rnrd
Linn, E. (1921). The Battle of Culloden—16 April, 1746—as described in a Letter from a Soldier of the Royal Army to his Wife. Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 1(1), 21-24 - https://www.jstor.org/stable/44227458?seq=1
McLynn, F. (1982). ISSUES AND MOTIVES IN THE JACOBITE RISING OF 1745. The Eighteenth Century, 23(2), 97-133 www.jstor.org/stable/41467263
National Army Museum – Battle of Culloden - https://www.nam.ac.uk/explore/battle-culloden
National Army Museum – The Glorious Revolution - https://www.nam.ac.uk/explore/army-and-glorious-revolution
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Nelson, R. (17 July 2017) British royal family change their name to Windsor - archive 1917, The Guardian - https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/from-the-archive-blog/2017/jul/17/british-royal-family-windsor-name-change-1917
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Stevenson, D (2011). Four Hundred Years of Freemasonry in Scotland. The Scottish Historical Review, 90(230), 280–295. www.jstor.org/stable/23073288
The Scotsman (19 May, 2017) A Circle of Gentlemen - a once secret Jacobite society - https://www.scotsman.com/whats-on/arts-and-entertainment/circle-gentlemen-once-secret-jacobite-society-855991
UK Parliament, The 1745 rebellion - https://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/evolutionofparliament/legislativescrutiny/act-of-union-1707/overview/the-1745-rebellion/
Visit Scotland, Jacobite Risings - https://www.visitscotland.com/about/history/jacobites/

Orwell’s 1984 Meets the Covid-19 Pandemic - The corporate and governmental response to the Covid-19 pandemic is becoming more Orwellian by the day. In the latest Orwellian twist, Google has just announced that it is using location data from its Google Maps app to globally track movements of people in 130 countries, all in the name of helping health officials fight the pandemic. Dubbed Community Mobility Reports, these analytics break down the change in behaviour that has occurred since lockdown measures that have been imposed in many countries.

This announcement by Google came only a couple of days after researchers from the University of Oxford released a paper arguing that a new digital contact tracing app should be launched in the UK to fight Covid-19. Many will be aware that this proposed UK app is eerily similar to other digital control measures that have already been imposed in other countries. From Israel to Iran, Singapore to South Korea, the age of the pandemic is the age of total digital surveillance. Unsurprisingly however, no other country trumps China in this regard. An app in China now dictates the daily actions of a huge proportion of its people, determining if the app user is allowed to use the subway or other public areas, or if they should be under quarantine. Called the Alipay Health Code, each user is assigned a colour code which determines the level of risk posed to other people, yet exactly how the colour is determined is far from transparent.

My intention here is not to distract from the people who are tragically dying from the disease, or undermine the steps taken in the short-term to combat Covid-19. I have a lot of respect for nurses and emergency workers who are bravely working hard, and I am not arguing that people should ignore advice from authorities who are trying to contain the pandemic. Yet, long-term, we cannot just allow ourselves to be conditioned to live in an Orwellian dictatorship where we are prisoners in our own homes, all whilst being lectured too, like we are all 3-years-old. If we are not careful, we could wake up in a post-Covid-19 world that many may feel isn’t worth living in.

It also doesn’t help matters when so-called experts ignore their own advice. A recent scandal in Scotland erupted when Dr Catherine Calderwood, the now former Chief Medical Officer of Scotland, broke the countries lockdown rules by twice visiting her second home in Fife, which is over an hour’s drive from her primary residence in Edinburgh. Calderwood was given a police warning for violating the lockdown rules, and ultimately forced to resign from her position.

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Sources:

BBC News (6 April, 2020) Coronavirus: Scotland's chief medical officer resigns over lockdown trips - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-52177171
Doffman, Z. (14 March, 2020) Coronavirus Spy Apps: Israel Joins Iran And China Tracking Citizens’ Smartphones To Fight COVID-19, Forbes - https://www.forbes.com/sites/zakdoffman/2020/03/14/coronavirus-spy-apps-israel-joins-iran-and-china-tracking-citizens-smartphones-to-fight-covid-19/
Ferretti, L., Wymant, C., Kendall, M. Zhao, L. Nurtay, A., Abeler-Dörner, L., Parker, M. Bonsall, D., Fraser, C. (2020) Quantifying SARS-CoV-2 transmission suggests epidemic control with digital contact tracing, Science - https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2020/03/30/science.abb6936
Google, Covid-19 Community Mobility Reports https://www.google.com/covid19/mobility/
Kelion, L. (3 April 2020) Coronavirus: Google reveals travel habits during the pandemic, BBC News - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-52138076
Kelion, L. (31 March 2020) Coronavirus: UK considers virus-tracing app to ease lockdown, BBC News - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-52095331
Kharpal, A. (26 March, 2020) Use of surveillance to fight coronavirus raises concerns about government power after pandemic ends, CNBC - https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/27/coronavirus-surveillance-used-by-governments-to-fight-pandemic-privacy-concerns.html
Mozur, P., Zhong, R., and Krolik, A. (1 March, 2020) In Coronavirus Fight, China Gives Citizens a Color Code, With Red Flags, New York Times - https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/01/business/china-coronavirus-surveillance.html
Pierotti, A. (19 March 2020) Bill Gates Answers Every Question You Have About Coronavirus, Men's Health Australia - https://www.menshealth.com.au/bill-gates-coronavirus-when-it-will-end
Twitter, Drone Footage from Derbyshire Police
https://twitter.com/DerbysPolice/status/1243168931503882241

Hi folks, I hope you’re everyone is doing ok considering the situation. I just wanted to quickly update everyone on the workings of the channel.

I have just created a sister channel to Insight History called Insight Health, both on YouTube and BitChute, where I am going to post videos on health for those who are interested in this topic. Going forward, I will only upload videos that focus on history and politics to Insight History, and videos that focus on health to Insight Health, so as not to confuse the content on each channel.

Please subscribe to both channels or the channel you are most interested in, and remember to hit the bell and turn on your notifications so you will be alerted every time I post a video. Thanks, I am working on a new video for Insight History that will be out shortly…

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PANDEMIC: Medical Martial Law and the Nuremberg Code in the Age of COVID-19 - The COVID-19 pandemic has thrown up an array of questions, yet one question that has been given little attention pertains to how much state power and suspension of civil liberties is justified in the face of a global pandemic? This is by no means a simple question to answer, but it is clear that state power in many countries has grown considerably in recent times, as governments and local authorities have declared national emergencies to fight the virus. Already, we have seen extreme measures taken and unnerving laws passed in the name of combating COVID-19, with these actions considered unthinkable only a few months ago. Just last week, the Italian region of Lombardy has called in the army to help enforce the lockdown against COVID-19. Approximately 40,000 people have now been charged with violating the lockdown in Italy. Italy serves as an example of a potential situation that could unfold in many other countries in the near future.

To be clear, I am not arguing that people should ignore the advice of governments and authorities that have imposed restrictions to contain the virus. For a limited period of time, these measures may well be justified in some sense, although each viewer and reader will have their own take on this issue. Yet there is a balance, and it does not take a rocket scientist to work out that there is so much space in this emergency, wartime period, for governments to abuse the power that they have given themselves. Denmark has also reportedly passed emergency legislation that could give authorities the power to forcibly test, treat and quarantine citizens. An earlier draft of the law would have allowed police to enter private homes without a court order, yet this section was scrapped from the legislation.

The principle of consent was affirmed in the documents that came out after the prosecution of Nazi officials at the Nuremberg trials that took place after World War II. More specifically, the trial of the United States v. Karl Brandt, also known as the Doctors Trial, where doctors were tried for war crimes before US military courts. The Nuremberg Code was one document that came out of the Doctors Trial, and set principles regarding medical ethics and standards that should be followed by doctors and researchers when conducting experiments on human subjects (Pelias 2006: 74). Consisting of 10 principles, the first principle of the Nuremberg Code is perhaps the most important. It states that “the voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential,” and goes to on state that the consent has to be competent, informed and be the product of the “free power of choice.”

Today, governments may well be justified in taking draconian steps to fight this deadly virus for a limited period of time, but in this process, we cannot lose all our basic human and civil rights permanently.

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Sources:

Annas, G. J., & Grodin, M. A. (2018). Reflections on the 70th Anniversary of the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial. American journal of public health, 108(1), 10–12 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5719716/
Ben-Amos, B. (2009). [Review of the book Karl Brandt: The Nazi Doctor. Medicine and Power in the Third Reich]. Holocaust and Genocide Studies 23(2), 313-316. https://www.muse.jhu.edu/article/315469.
Harvard Law School Library Nuremberg Trials Project, NMT Case 1 - U.S.A. v. Karl Brandt et al.: The Doctors' Trial https://nuremberg.law.harvard.edu/nmt_1_intro#summary
Kirk, L (13 March, 2020) Danish public employees sent home for two weeks, EU Observer https://euobserver.com/coronavirus/147714
Pelias, M. (2006). Human Subjects, Third Parties, and Informed Consent: A Brief Historical Perspective of Developments in the United States. Community Genetics, 9(2), 73-77. https://bit.ly/3bfgLAl
Reuters (20 March, 2020) Italy to use army to enforce coronavirus lockdown in worst-hit region - https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-italy-army/italy-to-use-army-to-enforce-coronavirus-lockdown-in-worst-hit-region-idUSKBN2171ZA
The Boston Globe (5 March, 2020) Coronavirus and Maine vote make case for Mass. vaccine law https://www.bostonglobe.com/2020/03/05/opinion/coronavirus-maine-vote-make-case-mass-vaccine-law/
The Local (13 March, 2020) Denmark rushes through emergency coronavirus law https://www.thelocal.dk/20200313/denmark-passes-far-reaching-emergency-coronavirus-law
Tondo, L. (18 March, 2020) Italy charges more than 40,000 people with violating lockdown, The Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/18/italy-charges-more-than-40000-people-violating-lockdown-coronavirus

3 Deadly Pandemics Humanity Has Overcome - Since the dawn of civilization, humanity has had to confront three key threats above all others: war, famine and disease. Given the outbreak of the Coronavirus or COVID-19, which is now categorized as a pandemic, it is important to highlight some of the disease outbreaks that humanity has managed to overcome. The three pandemics this video will focus on are: the Hong Kong Flu Pandemic of 1968; the Black Death of the fourteenth century; and the Spanish Flu of the twentieth century.

This video will first focus on what constitutes a pandemic? The word pandemic is derived from the Greek word pandēmos, meaning ‘all people.’ The World Health Organization (WHO) defines a pandemic as the “worldwide spread of a new disease,” including when “a new influenza virus emerges and spreads around the world, and most people do not have immunity.”

Exactly how deadly the Coronavirus of our own time will be is still unknown, as details surrounding the virus are constantly developing and changing. One thing can be sure however, irrespective of what happens in the coming days, weeks and months: COVID-19 has already made it into the history books of the future.

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Sources:

Andrews, E. (Jan 12, 2016) Why was it called the “Spanish Flu?” History, HTTPS://WWW.HISTORY.COM/NEWS/WHY-WAS-IT-CALLED-THE-SPANISH-FLU
Benedictow, O. J. (3 March 2005) The Black Death: The Greatest Catastrophe Ever, History Today https://www.historytoday.com/archive/black-death-greatest-catastrophe-ever
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1968 Pandemic (H3N2 virus https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1968-pandemic.html
Holmes, F. (2019) The Influenza Pandemic and the War, The University of Kansas Medical Center http://www.kumc.edu/wwi/medicine/influenza.html
Insight History (10 Feb. 2020) Viruses, Epidemics and Experiments: The History of Biowarfare https://bit.ly/2QqT1Bm
Knott, K. (13 Jul 2018) How Hong Kong flu struck without warning 50 years ago, and claimed over a million lives worldwide, South China Morning Post https://bit.ly/33r4ENY
Kolata, G. (9 March 2020) Coronavirus Is Very Different From the Spanish Flu of 1918. Here’s How New York Times https://nyti.ms/3da1K4D
Lin II, R, G. and Karlamangla, S. (6 March 2020) Why the coronavirus outbreak isn’t likely to be a repeat of the 1918 Spanish flu https://www.latimes.com/science/story/2020-03-06/why-this-coronavirus-likely-wont-be-as-bad-as-the-1918-pandemic-flu
Patterson, D. ‘The influenza pandemic of 1918-19 in the Gold Coast,’ Journal of African History, 24:4, (1983), pp.485-502.
Riedel S. (2004). Biological warfare and bioterrorism: a historical review. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), 17(4), 400–406 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1200679/
Rogers, K. Hong Kong flu of 1968 Encyclopædia Britannica https://www.britannica.com/event/Hong-Kong-flu-of-1968
The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, 1918 Pandemic (H1N1 Virus) https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1918-pandemic-h1n1.html
Woo, G. (2019) Age-dependence of the 1918 pandemic, British Actuarial Journal, (24: e3) https://bit.ly/2wZnnUq
World Health Organization (24 Feb. 2010) What is a pandemic? https://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/frequently_asked_questions/pandemic/en/
World Health Organization (31 Oct. 2017) Plague https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/plague

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The black death. Watercolour by Monro S. Orr. Credit: Wellcome Collection. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) This file comes from Wellcome Images, a website operated by Wellcome Trust, a global charitable foundation based in the United Kingdom. Refer to Wellcome blog post (archive). https://bit.ly/2TZlP5W https://bit.ly/3a2qvxG
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Stuxnet: The Insidious Cyberweapon Used Against Iran - 2009 marked the year when a completely new form of warfare confirmed its arrival on the world stage. Beginning in the summer of 2009, the first version of a computer worm that was later dubbed ‘Stuxnet’ began spreading through the information networks associated with the Iranian nuclear program. Stuxnet targeted the thousands of centrifuges at the Natanz nuclear facility in Iran, with these centrifuges spinning at rapid speeds in order to detach isotopes in uranium gas. It is estimated that one version of the Stuxnet attack destroyed 1,000 out of the 5,000 centrifuges Iran had in operation at the time.

Because the Natanz nuclear facility was air-gapped from the internet as a security protection, a difficulty for the attackers was finding a way to get the worm into the computer systems of Natanz. The precise details regarding how Stuxnet was delivered are still somewhat unknown, with two possible, potentially complimentary operations responsible. Firstly, the attackers may have relied on engineers and others who had physical access to the plant. It has been reported that an Iranian engineer recruited by Dutch intelligence on behalf of the CIA and the Mossad potentially planted Stuxnet into the nuclear facilities system. Secondly, the use of cyberattacks against companies believed to be connected to the nuclear facility may have introduced the worm into Natanz, as Stuxnet was primarily spread through infected USB sticks.

The Stuxnet cyberattack was part of a larger cyberwarfare program codenamed Operation Olympic Games, which stretched back to the George W. Bush administration. Although the creators of Stuxnet have not officially taken responsibility for its creation, it is widely believed to be the work of American and Israeli intelligence. The cyberoperation came to an end in the summer of 2010 however, when an error in the code – which arguably came from an modification added by Israeli agents - led to the worm spreading around the internet. The actual success of the Stuxnet operation is still somewhat debated. Yet from a historical perspective, Stuxnet stands out not because of its debated effectiveness, but because it was the first confirmed attack in the new realm of cyberwarfare.

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Sources:

Chen, T. (2014). (Rep.). Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. https://bit.ly/2veRE1d
Jabbour, K., & Devendorf, E. (2017). Cyber Threat Characterization. The Cyber Defense Review, 2(3), 79-94. https://bit.ly/3c68cJ8
Reuters (16 May, 2019) Iran builds firewall against Stuxnet computer virus: minister https://www.reuters.com/article/us-iran-israel-stuxnet/iran-builds-firewall-against-stuxnet-computer-virus-minister-idUSKCN1SM116
Sanger, D. (June 1, 2012) Obama Order Sped Up Wave of Cyberattacks Against Iran, New York Times - https://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/01/world/middleeast/obama-ordered-wave-of-cyberattacks-against-iran.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Winer, S. (3 Sep. 2019) ‘Dutch mole’ planted Stuxnet virus in Iran nuclear site on behalf of CIA, Mossad, The Times of Israel, Yahoo https://www.timesofisrael.com/dutch-mole-planted-infamous-stuxnet-virus-in-iran-nuclear-site-report/
Zetter, K. (11 July, 2011) How Digital Detectives Deciphered Stuxnet, the Most Menacing Malware in History, Wired - https://www.wired.com/2011/07/how-digital-detectives-deciphered-stuxnet/
Zetter, K. (03 Nov. 2014) An Unprecedented Look at Stuxnet, the World's First Digital Weapon, Wired https://www.wired.com/2014/11/countdown-to-zero-day-stuxnet/

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Is World War Between the US and China Inevitable? The obscenely fast rise of China as a major power over the past few decades has led many to argue that world war between the US and China is a real possibility. Already, we have seen a trade war erupt between the two countries, with tariffs imposed in both directions. The major concern that world war could erupt between the two powerhouses stems from the fact that their relationship contains a historical dynamic which often leads to war: known as the Thucydides trap. In relation to the potential outcome of the relationship between the US and China, some parallels may be found if we look closer at the case when America challenged and surpassed the power of the British Empire.

In relation to whether a hot war between the US and China is inevitable, a key question emerges: how connected was America to the rise of China? The answer, quite simply, is that America was deeply connected to the China’s rise. In fact, the US in many ways facilitated China’s rise on the world stage, as the US under Nixon made the decision to bring China in from isolation. Without Nixon, Kissinger and Rockefeller bringing China in from the cold, it is highly improbable that China would be anywhere near as powerful as it is today. Given the vast amount of connections between America and the rise of China, it seems reasonable to conclude that world war is not inevitable between the two powerhouses.

Sources:

Allison, G. (2018) Destined for War: Can America and China Escape the Thucydides Trap? (London: Scribe).
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Viruses, Epidemics and Experiments: The History of Biological Warfare - The use of bacteria, viruses and other biological agents as weapons of war has a long and gut-wrenching history. Despite some early examples, it was not until the 20th century that biological warfare truly became scientifically callous. During the First World War, the German military was a notable practitioner of this art of warfare.

The Japanese were particularly interested in this area of warfare, intensifying their efforts through the Second World War. One of the most prominent advocates of the use of biowarfare was the Japanese Surgeon General and microbiologist, Shiro Ishii, who went on to head the central unit of Imperial Japan’s biological warfare programme during WWII: Unit 731, which was based in occupied China. As part of their biowarfare program, the Japanese army tested a minimum of 25 biological agents on civilians and prisoners of war, with operations including the poisoning of over 1,000 Chinese water wells with typhus and cholera, and dropping fleas infested with plague on Chinese cities. At least thousands of people were killed by this programme, with some even arguing that approximately 200,000 Chinese were killed.

What makes all of this worst however is that fact that the US government gave immunity to many of these Japanese biowarfare officers in exchange for getting the data from the Japanese biological warfare programme, akin to Operation Paperclip. There are also numerous examples of militaries conducting biological warfare experiments on their own, unsuspecting citizens. Aside from civilians being used as guinea pigs by biowarfare units, biological warfare programmes can also pose another risk to civilians: in the form of pathogens accidently escaping from biowarfare facilities.

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Sources:
Barnett, A. (April 21 2002) Millions were in germ war tests, The Guardian – https://www.theguardian.com/politics/...
Frischknecht F. (2003). The history of biological warfare. Human experimentation, modern nightmares and lone madmen in the twentieth century. EMBO reports, 4 Spec No(Suppl 1), S47–S52 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...
Hilts, P. (Nov. 18 1994) Deaths in 1979 Tied to Soviet Military, New York Times - https://www.nytimes.com/1994/11/18/wo...
Horrock, N. (Sept. 19 1975) Senators Are Told of Test Of a Gas Attack in Subway, New York Times – https://www.nytimes.com/1975/09/19/ar...
Kristof, N. (March 17, 1995) Unmasking Horror -- A special report.; Japan Confronting Gruesome War Atrocity, New York Times
https://www.nytimes.com/1995/03/17/wo...
Loria, K. (Sept. 25, 2016) Over and over again, the military has conducted dangerous biowarfare experiments on Americans, Business Insider – https://www.businessinsider.com/milit...
Riedel S. (2004). Biological warfare and bioterrorism: a historical review. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), 17(4), 400–406 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...
Walker, A. (Nov. 21 2005) Project Paperclip: Dark side of the Moon, BBC News – http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/4...

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Why Did the Spanish Flu Kill More People Than World War I? 1918 marked the inception of a global pandemic that would go on to devastate the entire world, with the Spanish flu claiming more lives than World War I itself. Although estimates range widely, the Spanish flu killed anywhere between 20 and 100 million people, with the Centre for Disease Control estimating that at least 50 million people died worldwide; compared to approximately 17 million people dying in the First World War.

The insanely high death toll from the 1918 pandemic begs the obvious question: why did the Spanish flu become so lethal? The 1918 influenza pandemic is often referred to as the ‘Spanish’ flu because the press of neutral Spain was the first to report on the pandemic. It was caused by a virus which spread from person to person through the respiratory tract, with a high percentage of deaths resulting from bacterial pneumonia caused by a secondary infection of the lungs, which had been debilitated by the virus.

The variables which explain why the Spanish flu became so lethal are multi-faceted. One key reason was that the Great War created an environment that was highly conducive to the rapid spread of viruses. In 1918, there was a vast movement of people and goods - both within countries, and across the globe – which created a perfect network of human carriers for the virus to quickly travel.

The prioritization of war over adopting preventative measures is another reason why the Spanish influenza became so deadly. Aside from the war however, there were other important reasons why the influenza claimed so many. One reason pertained to there being a critical lack of medical knowledge concerning the causative agent of the virus, and the subsequent absence of an effective treatment. Even though the Spanish flu killed more people than the First World War did directly, the two events are inextricably intertwined, as the Great War provided the springboard for the influenza to become so deadly.

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Sources:

Aimone, F. ‘The 1918 Influenza Epidemic in New York City: A Review of the Public Health Response,’ Public Health Reports (1974-) Vol. 125, Supplement 3: The 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic in the United States, (2010), pp.71-79 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2862336/.
Andrews, E. (Jan 12, 2016) Why was it called the “Spanish Flu?” History, HTTPS://WWW.HISTORY.COM/NEWS/WHY-WAS-IT-CALLED-THE-SPANISH-FLU
Byerly, C. ‘The U.S. Military and the Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919,’ Public Health Reports, 125.Suppl 3, (2010), pp.82–91.
Holmes, F. (2019) The Influenza Pandemic and the War, The University of Kansas Medical Center - http://www.kumc.edu/wwi/medicine/influenza.html
Patterson, D. ‘The influenza pandemic of 1918-19 in the Gold Coast,’ Journal of African History, 24:4, (1983), pp.485-502.
Snow, D. (25 Feb 2014) Viewpoint: 10 big myths about World War One debunked, BBC News - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-25776836
Song L. (2014). It is Unlikely That Influenza Viruses Will Cause a Pandemic Again Like What Happened in 1918 and 1919. Frontiers in public health, 2, 39 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4019839/
The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, 1918 Pandemic (H1N1 Virus) - https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1918-pandemic-h1n1.html
The Washington times. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]), 19 Sept. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026749/1918-09-19/ed-1/seq-1/

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Scurvy, Citrus Fruits and the Expansion of the British Empire - Scurvy is a disease that has plagued humanity for at least 5,000 years, as the first recorded case of scurvy occurred in ancient Egypt between 3800 and 3600 BC. This disease was at its most deadly during the Age of Discovery, as this was a period of time when European empires expanded their territory to mysterious lands across unknown oceans, beginning with the expansion of Portuguese power in the 15th century. Scurvy became such an issue during this time that shipowners expected that 50% of any ship crew would die from scurvy on any long voyage.

For millennia, scurvy was a highly enigmatic disease, with various theories circulated about what caused and what cured this pernicious horror. In 1747, the Scottish physician, James Lind, undertook one of the first controlled clinical trials in human history, onboard the Royal Navy ship, HMS Salisbury. The experiment consisted of Lind taking 12 sailors who were suffering similar degrees of scurvy, dividing them into six groups of two. After just one week, the group that was taking two oranges and a lemon each day were helping Lind take care of the ill sailors in the five other groups.

More than four decades past between Lind’s experiment and the Navy taking action. In 1795, the British Navy made it official policy for sailors to be issued lemon juice, with the Scottish physician, Gilbert Blane, playing an important role in convincing the Navy’s hierarchy to introduce this measure. Importantly, simply adding citrus juice into the diet of British sailors had a profound impact on the power of the British Empire, an Empire which relied heavily on control over the seas.

Yet, despite some victories against scurvy in the 19th century, it was not as effective as it could have been, as the Navy did not properly understand the mechanism by which citrus fruits prevented scurvy. Today, we now know that scurvy is caused by a vitamin C deficiency. This is because without vitamin C, humans can’t produce collagen, a critical protein found in skin, bones, blood vessels, cartilage and other connective tissue. It is interesting to note that humans are one of only a few mammals – including guinea pigs - who can’t produce vitamin C in their own bodies. As this story illustrates, the war against scurvy was a long and painful one. What is most shocking of all however, is the fact that 250 years on from Lind’s revolutionary experiment, people who consume fast food diets are still being admitted to hospital with scurvy.

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Sources:

BBC News (Jan. 2016) Is scurvy making a comeback? https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-35380716
Harrison M. (2013). Scurvy on sea and land: political economy and natural history, c. 1780-c. 1850. Journal for maritime research, 15(1), 7–25 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4337985/
Killgrove, K. (Jan. 2016) Earliest Case Of Scurvy In Ancient Egypt Detected By Archaeologists, Forbes - https://www.forbes.com/sites/kristinakillgrove/2016/01/21/earliest-case-of-scurvy-in-ancient-egypt-detected-by-archaeologists/
LLOYD, C. (1961). THE INTRODUCTION OF LEMON JUICE AS A CURE FOR SCURVY. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 35(2), 123-132.
National Geographic, (Oct. 2005) - The World in a Glass: Six Drinks That Changed History - https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/10/the-world-in-a-glass-six-drinks-that-changed-history/
Price, C. 14 (Aug. 2017) Science History Institute - The Age of Scurvy - https://www.sciencehistory.org/distillations/the-age-of-scurvy
White, M. (4 Oct. 2016) James Lind: The man who helped to cure scurvy with lemons, BBC News - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-37320399

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Created 1 year, 1 month ago.

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CategoryEducation

This channel is dedicated to exploring the fascinating stories from history that often go untold.

Although I have a particular interest in ancient civilizations, this channel will highlight stories from a variety of time periods and geographical areas - if there is a story to be told, nothing else matters.

My name is Steven and I have a first-class honours degree in Politics and International Relations from Strathclyde University. As part of my degree, I took classes in history, journalism, creative writing and statistics, giving me a broad understanding of global affairs, both past and present.

Please subscribe to this channel and help support it by sharing, liking and donating to it. If you have any questions, sponsorship offers, copyright enquiries or if you need to get in touch for any other reason, please contact me via: [email protected]

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